This article will take the loan word as a starting point, having a discussion of the absorption of foreign culture for China. Keywords: loan word; English; Chinese; Japanese; culture 1 Introduction People are animals who can speak languages. Language is the highest property of human culture. And it’s also significant to human communication. Because of race, nationality and other reasons of region and culture make languages differ in thousands of ways. So language can be a symbol of the national culture. More than hat, language and culture are intertwined, interplay and infiltrated in the changing of the history.
The loan word is in communication and collision of different cultures, and plays an important role as a bridge. The famous American linguist Sapid pointed out that: “Language can not only reflect the content of culture, but also can reflect the influence of culture. So when a language is introduced into another, whose loan word which contains its local cultural factors will be also introduced in. ” Therefore, it is of great value to know more about the loan word in Chinese. The origin of loan word In the history of the development, there always are communications among nations.
When some names of items do not exist in either of the languages, or either of them is stronger, then loan word is generated. A loanword (or loan word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language. 2. 1 The origin and meaning of loan word The concept of a loanword is similar to, but not the same as, that of a claque. A claque, or loan translation, is a related concept where the meaning or idiom is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself. The word “loanword” is itself a claque of the German Loanword.
This metaphor is not isolated to the concept of loanwords, but also found in the idiom “to borrow an idea. ” 2. 2 The origin of loan word in China In languages, the using language which absorbed from foreign countries with the loan word in Chinese. So in its narrow sense, the loan word in Chinese is the foreign language vocabulary introduced in China before the modern times, and with vocabulary which comes from Europe as the center of it. From the middle of 18th century when the capitalist countries used force to open the door of China, the sieve of western culture swarm into China, so people were forced to accept new things and new ideas.
Also in a broad sense, the loan word is absorbed from the foreign languages then used in the form of Chinese which we can see many of them everywhere in our daily life. We do not pay attention to them because some of them have experienced longer history that we cannot distinguish their foreign identity. So the loan word has two features. One feature is all composed by foreign language. The other one is the words which mix other languages with the Chinese. The loan rod in Chinese are borrowed up to so many aspects which relate to many fields like sports, articles, arts, science and so on.
From this we can know what fields the Chinese concerned. 3 Loan word and culture The loan word is not only a social phenomenon, but also a kind of important cultural phenomenon. As Curiosity and Japanese written by Kazoo Tsunami (Skidpans, 1975) said, “The number of the loan word symbolizes the strength and the vigor of a nation, which is also a sign of the absorption of foreign culture”. In the process of any country development, they contact with the foreign cultures endlessly. And during the communications, they absorb what is best to enrich their own culture.
The language as the vector of cultural transmission is also going through the same process. Along with the invention of a new thing, there will always be the corresponding word. Similarly, with the end of a thing, the words about the thing will be forgotten. So language reflects the development of culture indirectly. As the same, from a certain view, the language is the vector of culture and the pioneer of cultural transmission. The loan word as one of the representatives of the foreign culture also an be an important window to observe the development of a country and its culture. The absorption of foreign cultures Since ancient times, the Chinese has been getting many kinds of foreign cultures. The development of Chinese culture is also benefit from the absorption of foreign cultures. However, the absorption is not Just intact, but through ourselves digestion, brewing for our unique culture to develop our country. 4. 1 Loan word from English The development of English loan words in Chinese can be analyzed from three different periods: before the opium war, from the opium war to the Revolution of 911 and after the May 4th Movement.
These three major periods reflect China’s huge changes, not only in the field of economic, but also in people’s daily lives. They have their special features which each play a role or only role in the evolution of English loan words in Chinese. 4. 2 The absorption of western culture During the process of cultural communication between China and western countries, mainland advanced culture is introduced into China. The loan word which has the earliest profound impact on Chinese is English.
In King dynasty, the western s the main medium language resulted in the appearance of English loan words in Chinese, such as: geometry (Jill), economics politics (Г¦*), bank The most loan word reflected and represented the British advanced science and technology culture. In the war years, English loan words introduced into the Chinese including four aspects which are the political and military, science and technology, art and sports and the daily life. We can see from the above examples, the English loan words reflect the western advanced material culture during that time.
At the same time, the humanities and science of western system culture and spiritual ultra have entered into China. Especially since the reform and opening-up, English invasion aggressively and constantly. Under this situation, people often find it difficult to cope with the new loan words, sometimes even professionals are completely blindsided. It can be said that English loan words have gone deep into all aspects of social life. These loan words widen people’s ways of thinking, and add to the common core of the Chinese and western national language and culture, what’s more, lay the foundation for China going into the international society.
Through the moan word, China have learned foreign advanced science and technology ceaselessly, and even have followed the western in some aspects of live line. For examples: wearing a suit, eating breakfast, living in the American buildings. Also the loan word as an example of showing in the Chinese name is exist. Modern science and the advanced mode of production introduced into China through the loan word accelerated the rapid development of the economy and the science in China. 4. 3 Loan word from Japan If it said that the Japanese ancient civilization heritages in China, the Chinese modern violation is attributed to the Japanese.
The Chinese culture through the characters, across the seas, made a great contribution to the development of the Japanese culture in the ancient time. And because of the Chinese, the language of Japan developed from nothing, and formed a complete system of words ultimately. But since the end of King dynasty, the Japanese loan words that had really begun to increase are in the starting of China’s modernization. 4. 4 The reference of Japan Because of the impact of the Meijer restoration, after the Sino-Japanese war, China deed to seek a way of development that led the wave of Chinese study abroad in Japan.
In that period, a lot of books were translated by Chinese scholars, so that a large number of Japanese loan words are introduced into China which with time characteristics, such as: liberation law and democracy (R*). And after the reform and opening-up, China always model in developed Japan in economic construction, science and technology and humanistic management. Through the translation of books and the popularization of network and media, many Japanese loan words have entered every aspect of our life. The entering of Japanese loan words has increased the quantity of the Chinese vocabulary.
In the nineties of last century, the Japanese loan words have already reached the number of 890, and now it is rising constantly. The influx of the loan word has not only made the learning of advanced science and technology conveniently, but also had a significant effect on the word formation and grammar of Chinese. The emergence of the compound word which can be as an instance has enriched the forms of the Chinese. Since the China and the West, will forever separated by Japan. The number of Japanese loan rods is very surprising in modern Chinese.
According to the statistics, 70% of the noun and terminology of social and humanistic science we used today are input from Japan. These words were translated by Japanese, then were introduced into China and rooted in the Chinese language. The concepts that we are using everyday mostly are made out by Japanese. Maybe I can say, in fact, without recent Japanese loan words we almost are not able to do typical conversation in nowadays. 5 Conclusion As the carrier of culture – language in the development of Chinese culture which also served as the important role.
Nor Highways, a Japanese loan word authority, said: “The amount of the loan word is one of the symbols of the vitality of a nation. ” A large number of the loan word in Chinese does not mean that the Chinese begin to retrogress; on the contrary, it illustrates the inclusiveness of the Chinese. Chinese culture has always insisted on her own dominance, absorbing foreign culture so as to promote the development of Chinese culture instead of putting the cart before the horse. The Chinese continue screening in the foreign culture, pick out the suitable for our culture, then promote and add our elements.