FROM with the works of members of the

 FROMOPPRESSION TO DELIGHT IN BAMA’S KARUKKU- A STUDY “Literatureis not only the effect of social cause: It is the cause of social effect”. The spurt in Dalitliterature in India is an attempt to portray the discrimination violence andthe poverty of   Dalit’s which have beenlong been silenced and suppressed for a long time. The emergence of this newliterary genre called Dalit literature reflects the awareness of growingidentity and suffering of the downtrodden people during colonial period andpost- independent time’s .It is an attempt of literary representation of the Dalitproblems and emerging consciousness in writing. The Dalit scholar .

DR.Shanthank says Dalit literature is written by Dalit on Dalit for Dalits. Indian is well known for its caste system andthe Dalit from the lowest rung in the system .They are still fighting againstspread discrimination. Though great social reformers like   B.RAmbebdkar,  Periyar and many othersconducted many struggles against caste system, the struggle many writers havestarted writing about their life, struggles and achievements . Bama is one suchwriter her work “KARUKKU” has createda kind of revolution among Dalit literature.

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 This thesis takes on the struggles and oppression and the achievementsportrayed in Bama Karukku.  Englishlanguage and literature started with the advent of English East Indian Company.Indian literature refers to the literature of various Regional writers ofIndia. The earliest Indian literature took form of Hindu scared writings knownas the Vedas which were written in Sanskrit. Indian literature classified asAnglo-Indian and Indio –Angloian writings .

Indio Angloian writings are originallyliterary creation in English by Indians. It is also associated with the worksof members of the Indian Diaspora. It is frequently referred to as Indo Angloianliterature. It comes under the broader realm of post-colonial literature. IndianEnglish literature originated as a necessary outcome of the introduction of Englisheducation in India under colonial rule .

It is now recognized that Indian Englishliterature is not only part of the common wealth literature but also occupies agreat significant position in the world literature.Englishliterature in India is very intimately linked with the works of associates ofthe Indian Diaspora. The Renaissance in modern Indian literature begins with RajaramMohan Raj’s sati, the percepts of Jesus VedicPhysics. He earned good command over the English language working with theBritish officials   . He had tried togive new thoughts, removed old dogmas and typical rituals through Bramhosamaj.

K.R.SrinivasaIyengar, “Rammohan Roy although he could be named as the first of the Indianmasters of English prose, he was great in many other fields that be belongs toIndian history more than to mere Indian Angloian literary history”(33).Themid-nineteenth century is the period of the renaissance in India and the timeof great   literary and social revolutions.

During themid-nineteenth legendary thinkers like Maharishi Debendranath Tagore, Kesub Chandarsenand Dayanad Saraswathi have contributed to social reforms, educational reformsand Renaissance in India. The first book written by an Indian in English was bySake Dean Mohomet, titled Travels Of Dean Mohamed (1793).Early Indianwriters used by English unadultered by Indian words to convey an experiencewhich was essentially Indian. Indian writings in English are the product of thehistorical encounter between two cultures, the Indian and the Western.BankimChandra Chatterjee’s Raj Mohan’s Wife(1864) enjoys the status of being the first Indian English novel.Kasha PrasadGhosh is considered as the First Indian poet writing in English.

Sochee ChunderDutt was the first writer of fiction.  Politicswas the dominant theme in the early novels. An experiment with truth by MahatmaGandhi. Discovery of India and Glimpses of World History by Jawaharlal Nehrutired to explore the history and language in the novels.The writers ofmid-nineteeth century were Kashi Prasad Ghosh, Micheal Madhusudhan Dutt, whosemaster piece was Megana badh Kavya,Romesh Chander Dutt, a Bengali writer whose work has been translated toEnglish,ManmohanGose, Rabindranath Tagore have contributed a lot to the reorganizationof  Indian Literature in English.

Writerslike Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, Sarojini Naidu have made their contribution toEnglish literature in India and they have achieved a place for among worldwriters. The majority of the writers in Indian English are from Bengal, Madrasand Bombay. They wrote their works based on ancient literature like Ramayanaand Mahabharata.

 The second half of the nineteenth century sawthe advent of some major writers like Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayanan and RajaRao. In the first two decades of the twentieth century, the Indian Englishnovel of the period was deeply influenced by the epoch making, social andideological ferment caused by the independence movement.Thepost independent era saw the resurgence of many writers including womenwriters, like   Arundhati Roy God of Smell ,Kiran Desai The inheritance of loss, Amirtadesai Fire of mountain ,light of day .Inmodern times fiction by women writers contribute a major segment to thecontemporary Indian writing in English.Prasanna says,  The major themes reflected in the works ofthe period are between the Easts and the West relationship cultural, alienationand loss of identity felt by expatriates and immigrants .

These are representedwith a deep insight by the writers.Todaythe Indian novelists writing in English are large in number. Besides Mulk RajAnand, R.K.

Narayan and Raja Rao ,the three foremost Indian writers offiction  in English ,there alsoK.agarjan, Bhabhani Bhattacharya ,Manohar Malgonar, Khushwantsingh, ShashiDeshpande ,Kamala Markandya ,Anita Desai ,Amitav Ghose and many more. All thesenovelists have considerably enriched Indian Literature .Among the late writers,the most notable is Salman Rushdie, born in India, now living in the UnitedKingdom. Rushdie’s famous work midnight’s children (1981).

Authors Kiran Desai ,ChitraBanerje, Divya Karuni, JumphaLahri,Bharti Kirchner.Indian literaturehas reached an apex of creation with the contributions of regional and nationalwriter .The recent development in Indian literature is the Subaltern literatureor the Dalit literature .These literature reflects the caste system which isvery much prevalent in modern India .The poverty, untouchablity, exploitation, discrimination,is some of theme of these literatures.  Etymology of the word’DALIT’ ,the word comes from Sanskrit which means”DOWNTRODDEN”,”SUPPRESSED”,”CRUSHED” or “BROKEN TO PIECES”. The word “DALIT”was first used by JUOTIRAO PHULE in the nineteenth century in the context ofthe oppression faced by “UNTOUCHABLES” in Bombay in Dalit conference.

In Indiathe varna system of society was the main cause of origin of Dalit.The term ‘DALIT’ cameinto prominence in 1972, When a group of young Marathi writer activist foundedan organization called DALIT Panthers ” , following the radical black panthersmovement of America, struggled for African-American rights in the U.S.A DalitPanthers movement incidentally started in Maharashtra, the homeland of B.R.Ambedkar  , who fought for the rights,liberties and equalities of the downtrodden throughout life. Arjun Dangle , awriter and leader of the Dalit Panthers movements writes.

     It the significant that Dalit literatureowes its origin to a revolutionary struggle for social and economic change.This explains the various aspects of serious thought in Dalit literature isclosely associated with the hopes of freedom of a group of people who asuntouchables are victims of social , economic and cultural inequality.(138)At the beginning of thetwentieth century a few upper caste Hindu writes attempted to portray the livesof the untouchables. The works of these writes can be termed as ‘Emotionalist’literature. It is only in the Post –Independence era that some educated ‘UNTOUCHABLES’,who tasted list the fruit of modern education, launched a new literarymovement.

Dalit literature is one of the most important literary movements toemerge in Post –Independence India.  The first generation educated Dalits, triedto expose and express their mental agony through words. The social inequality,hierarchy and till treatment forced the educated Dalit of 1970’s to pick up thepen and express their inner urge through poetry, novels, short stories andautobiography .Thus emerged ‘Dalit literature’ in the early seventies inMaharashtra ,which eventually spread to the neighboring  states of Gujarat ,Karnataka ,Tamil Nadu ,Andhra Pradesh and others. The first poet of eleventh century in Dalitliterature is MadaraChennaiah, a cobbler – saint who is also regarded somescholars as the father of Vachana poetry.In many regionallanguages Dalit literature writers have expressed their sensibility. Dalitsensibility is emerging a new trend in English writing.

Non Dalit writers likeMulk Raj Anand, BhismaShain and other writers have tried to write Dalit life.Dalit writing even goes back to the ages of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata,because Vyasa belongs to the lower community, valmiki a tribal, Markandya anuntouchable and Agastya a hunter. This legacy was continued up to twelfthcentury Vachana movement, where the scholars and thinkers were all downtrodden.The language used inDalit writing is caste and community oriented .

They used their own terminologyin literature in literature to express their own inner trauma. Dalit writersselected burning topics directly to expose the Dalit sensibility to the counterworld by writers like JYOTIBHA PHULE’S GULAMGIRIM (1873), DR. AMBEDKAR’SBAHISKRITH BHARATH (1927), Gandhiji’s article in HARIJIAN JORNALS (1933),SIDDHALINGAIAH’S EKLAVYA (2003),andDevanoorMahaeva’s  ODALALA(2012) andKUSUMABALE(1990) are the famous Dalit literary works.

Dalit literary movementhas a long history which ideally unfolds the secret struggle against cattiesttradition. Dalit literature got impetus in Maharashtra due to the legacy ofJYOTIBHA PHULE.The most progressiveand revolutionary minded writers like Premchand, Mulk Raj Anand , T.S.Pillai,V.S.Khandekar and several others who have tried to describe the sentiments ofDalit are not acceptable rather a Dalit by birth can be a genuine Dalit writer.

TarachandKhandekar’s LETTER OF THEIR OWN BLOOD (1981) is a natural outburst ofthe feelings and thoughts of being Dalit. The important writers whose works hadfound a great place in Dalit literature are Mahasweta Devi, NamdeoDhasal ,DayaPawar , Arjun Dangle , SachiRautray, Rabi Singh BasudevSunani ,AbhimaniPoomani, Imayam , MaskuMangalRathod , Neerave Patel ,PerumalMurugan ,Palamalai , sudhukar , D.Gopi and others.The writer of Dalitliterature used their own terminology in their writing and they also startedcreating their own myths and tried to break all established myths by otherwriters. The language is not appreciable. Dalit writers did not follow anyconvention which was framed by pandits. Thus Dalit literature has found a placein academic and public reading.

It has attractive both educated Dalit and Non-Dalit.Dalit writers raising their voice against forms of oppression related to class,gender, ethnicity, language, religion and caste.The writings ofautobiography have its own dignity among the readers. Hazari’s THEAUTOBIOGRAPHY OF AN INDIAN OUTACASTE (1951) is supposed to be first Dalitautobiography and Banarasida’sArdhakathanaka(1641) is the first Indianautobiography.

 James M. Freeman ‘s An Indian Life History ,D.P.Das ‘ THE UNTOUCHALE STORY (1985), Balwantsinghs’s AN UNTOUCHABLE IN THEIAS (1997) and Shyamlal’s UNTOLD STORY OF BHANGI VICE –CHANCELLOR (2001) ,allthese works have been written in English. The translated Dalit texts are Laxmanmane’s Upara ( Marathi:1984, translated as UPARA English:1997), Sharan KumarLimbale’s AKKARMASHI(Marathi:1984, translated as The outcaste in 2003),NarendraJadhav’s AMCHA BAAP AANI AMHI (Marathi :1993, translated in English asA Memoir in 2003) and LaxmanGaikwad’s (Marathi :1998 ,transalted as The Brandedin 1998). All these texts have been critically analyzed to see how Dalitautobiographies are different from non-Dalit autobiographies.

A rising chorus ofDalit women writers has further complicated the notion of Dalit consciousnessas a rhetorical construction of collective identify formation. Illiterate womencannot write their autobiographies but these women, given chance, can narratetheir joys as well as sorrows to someone help document their narrative voices.SumitraBhaves’s PAN OF FIRE( originally collected in Marathi in 1998) is avolume that contains the accounts of eight illiterate Dalit women telling theirlife stories .ShantabaiKambale’s  MAJYAJALMACHI CHITTRAKATHA (Marathi:1990) and KumudPawde’s ANTASPHOT (Marathi:1981)have been translated into English.A collaborativeautobiographical narrative titled Viramma by Josiane Racine ( French:1995),later Wil Hobson translated it as LIFE OF AN UNTOUCHABLE into English (1997) isanother addition to Dalit women’s personal narratives .

A few Dalit women fortunately , got some educationand have written their autobiographies in their own  languages .short stories and novels of Vizhi, Idayavendan ,Sivakami,Abhimani, Arivazhagan and Bama are recognized as Dalit literary works. Bama’s autobiographytitled Karukku (Tamil: 1992) translated into English titled the same in 2000.Sivakami’sPAZHIYAM KAZHIDAM (1989), the first Dalit novel in Tamil written by a Dalitwomen writer.

The common theme can be seen in their works are patriarchy,oppression, sexual violence, Feminism and discrimination of class, caste andgender. Dalit women characters are often portrayed as lively, vibrant, earthyand witty in their works.