I express my warm thanks to all the members of the different organizations that helped me complete my study with their valuable information. Without the contribution of employees of following organizations this research would not have been completed: Grammar saving & credit cooperative Share Alba saving & credit cooperative Earth Bump saving & credit cooperative Italics saving & credit cooperative Cannibal saving & credit cooperative Abstract: With the presence of modernization and women empowerment, women are participating in the workplace scenario as much as men are nowadays.
Gone re the days when women were confined to look after households. Women of today demand for equal respect and opportunity for advancement. With this diversified workforce, it is essential that managers understand the different needs of both the groups as they possess different personality. Gender stereotypes have a major contribution in shaping the preference Of motivational technique. Women, being the caring and nurturing, one desire for interpersonal and friendly relationship in the work environment.
However, certain unfavorable factors such as monotonous task, low salary, and low recognition from the employer may result in decrease in heir productivity. This is when managers need to identify their subordinates’ needs and fulfill them in order to motivate. However, identification of employees’ needs for motivation is easier said than done. Motivation is a psychological concept; every individual differ in personality, ability, attitude, status, etc. Given their diversified needs, they are differently motivated. Do men prefer to be the leader of a team or do they feel uncomfortable leading a group of people?
Does the perception of women being shy and avoiding competition hold true? Understanding Of employees’ activity goals, devotional drive should be the utmost priority for an organization as it greatly influences the organization performance. Gender has been identified as one of the ways to categorize employees’ needs and motivational drive. As it is said men are from mars women are from Venus, they differ in attitude, personality, job performance, viewpoint, interests and many other aspects. These differences in preference may result in difference in motivation technique.
Gone are the days when men worked in office while women took care of household. Women are actively participating in workplace and the umber has been increasing significantly day by day. Using the same motivational technique to both men and women might be ineffective. So, it is very essential for managers to understand the gender gap in motivation so no gender is undervalued or ineffective motivation technique is used. Theoretical review: Motivation in management describes different ways in which managers promote productivity in their employees.
Managers understand that they need to provide a work environment that creates motivation in people. But human needs are complex. One method of motivating an employee might not be applicable with another employee. This is why many managers fail to understand the core drive that motivates employees individually. In order recognize the different needs of different people many theories of motivation have been introduced which enables managers to understand the psychology of his employees and accordingly use the effective motivation technique to obtain maximum impact.
The theories introduced by different authors are Mascots need hierarchy theory (Abraham Moscow), Theory X and Y (Douglas McGregor), Two factor theory (Frederick Herbert), Hawthorne Effect (Elton Mayo) and Achievement needs theory (David McClellan). In this research David Miscellany’s theory of need motivation will be discussed to analyze the gender difference in motivation. In this need theory David McClellan proposed three dimensions of needs: Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation and Need for power.
Employees who desire need for achievement seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. Need for Achievement describes employees who want to be influential, effective and to make an impact; these people have a need to dominate, influence others and have power over them. And lastly deed for affiliation describes that some employees have need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. Everyone has all three needs.
McClellan proposed that many people are motivated by a mixture of these needs, but some individuals have a strong tendency towards one particular need. (McClellan, D. & Burnham, D. H. Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. Volvo. 73 no 1, 1995. ) If managers are able to identify his employees’ one particular need that outweighs other needs then the manger can effectively allocate tasks to the employees; an employee motivated by a need for affiliation is likely to be a good team worker, an employee motivated by need for power could be a good team leader.
Gender stereotype and its effect on motivation: Gender stereotypes as a result of biological determinants as well as social upbringings have been believed to affect motivational preferences (Tamil Armenia-Copulated. , 2010. Gender stereotypes and gender feature of job motivation: differences or similarity? ). These gender stereotypes differentiate traits of men and women. A typical man’s traits are strength, confidence, activity, aggression, autonomy, resoluteness. According to gender-based stereotypes, man should possess some manhood distinguishing features.
He is logical, initiative, rational, imperious and commanding, focused on goal achievement and competence. A typical woman is characterized by compliance, care, perceiving, devotion, patience. Woman should be womanhood, I. E. Passive, responsive, kindhearted, obedient, and dutiful, with submission and obedience acknowledged as her destination. As per these differences, it is believed that men and women differ in drive for motivation. To satisfy the stereotypical masculine needs such as economic success, autonomy and achievement, earnings, freedom, advancement, challenge, possibility to use skills etc. Re more significant motivators for men. In contrast, Women prefer interpersonal relationship, security, fringe benefits, environment etc. Should be more important. The research intends to analyze whether this believed gender stereotype really affect style of motivation? The research was conducted among 675 employees from Georgia. The results showed that men have not always given more value to gender-typical masculine attributes of motivation, and feminine factors of motivation such s stability and job security were almost as significant for them as for women.
As to women such typical masculine indicators of motivation such as opportunity for advancement and opportunity for high earning have been prioritize by women more than men. So it was concluded that gender stereotype has no or little effect on motivational drive and preference on motivational technique doesn’t depend upon gender, the focus should rather be given on individual features. Another significant research done on the similar topic showed opposite findings. There is a gender gap in key drivers of titivation (Rental Vassals. , 2004. Gender difference in performance motivation.
Measuring the Quality of Working Life). The survey contained 12 key drivers of motivation. The findings from this research showed that men place a higher value than women do on basic needs such basic salary and bonuses and self-actualization needs such as challenging tasks from the employer as motivational factors in their work performance. Women, on the other hand, place more importance than men do on inter-personal relationships at the workplace, respectful treatment by the employer, and the usability of reconciling work and family life. This research supports the notion of gender stereotypes.
Women want to be in touch of “soft issues” such as building relationship with the colleagues, seeking for respect from employer and giving equal importance to families; whereas men, being a masculine figure, seek for advancement in career, monetary incentives, and competition. This proves the notion of motivation being a complex process. The relation between gender stereotypes and gender difference on motivation might or might not exist based on perception, culture, geography, etc. Motivational drivers other than money: According to one of the researches done (Psychologists Nick Stead,. 009. The Effect of Age and Gender on Motivation to Work. 8th Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference), there are factors other than monetary incentives that can be used to motivate employees. These motivational techniques could be very essential to organizations facing financial crisis. This study analyses the difference in preference of men and women toward non-monetary incentives. A list of 9 motivational drivers was used to analyze the gender difference and they were further categorized into wow measures.
They were: Need for autonomy (Personal Growth, Flexibility, Ease and security and Immersion in work) and Desire for competition (Power, Commercial Outlook, Competition, Fear of Failure and Recognition). The findings showed that male had greater need for competition, fear of failure, immersion in work, power, commercial outlook and flexibility; the Women had greater need for recognition, ease and security and personal growth. Even though the findings showed a slightly mixed result it was concluded that men have a greater need for competition.
Men want to gain power and nominative advantage over others whereas women have a greater need for autonomy. Women want to be free to organize their own work and favor collaboration over competition; need for affiliation. Another article (Frances Burks, Are There Motivational Differences in Genders in the Workplace? Demand Media, 2010) also shows a distinct gap in gender motivation preference in a similar way. The article has listed four elements to analyze the difference: Financial rewards, Acknowledgement, Training and Respect.
The article suggests that desire for financial rewards is a natural instinct so it does to really differ among men and women as all human beings need money to sustain their living. Apart from monetary value, the article emphasizes on other non-monetary values. Acknowledgement from the boss is desired by every employee however women tend to favor it more than men do while comparing. They appreciate verbal or written form of acknowledgement for their work more often. Training improves employee skills; men prefer training as a favorable driver to be motivated than women do.
The sole reason for this is that women often have to balance their work life and family life which gives hem less or no extra time to indulge in training or other outdoor workshops. In terms of respect, there is significant distinction among men and women concerning how respect motivates them to do good work as everyone desires respect from others. Method purpose Of the study: The purpose of this research is to analyze the gender gap in David Miscellany’s Motivational Needs Theory among the employees from financial sector in Katmandu, Nepal.
This research aims to evaluate whether the findings regarding gender difference in motivation from the western sources are different or similar to that in Katmandu. If the gender distinction exists, the study serves to analyze which category do men and women fall among the three needs: Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation and Need for Power. Participants and Methodology: A sample of 30 employees from small financial cooperatives located inside Katmandu Valley has been taken. Among 30 participants 17 are female and 13 are male.
The data for this research is collected through survey. A structured survey questionnaire is prepared containing 33 statements which is further categorized into 3 statements for each need; therefore 1 1 statements for one need. Participants are to mark a scale of 1-5, 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest. Final conclusion is drawn by adding up their scores and calculating the average score. The sample of the questionnaire is as follows: Questionnaire on employee motivation The following survey is conducted to analyze the gender difference in motivation technique among employees.
Please help us in this study by filling up this form. 5 – Strongly agree 4_ Agree 3- Neutral 2- Disagree 1- Strongly disagree Choose the statement in each set that best describes you. A. When doing a job, need feedback. B. I am uncomfortable when forced to work alone. C. I prefer to work alone and be my own boss. 2. A. After starting a task, I am uncomfortable until it is finished. Out of my way to make friends with new people. C. I enjoy a good argument. 3. A. I work better when there is a deadline. B. I am always getting involved with group projects. . Status symbols are important to me. B. Gig 4. A. I work best when there is some challenge involved. B. I am sensitive to others, especially when they are angry. _ c. I would rather give orders than take them. A. I accept responsibility eagerly 5. B.. I get personally involved with my superiors. C. I am eager to be my own boss. A. When given responsibility, I set measurable standards of high 6. Performance. B. I include others in what I am doing. 8. 9. 10. 11. C. I prefer to be in charge of events. A. I desire to out-perform others b..
I am concerned about being liked and accepted. C. I am concerned about my reputation or position. A. I get completely involved in a project. B. I enjoy and seek warm, friendly relationships. C. I want my ideas to be used. A. I desire unique accomplishments. B. I enjoy influencing the direction of things. C. I don’t like being left out of things. A. I am restless and innovative. B. I think about consoling and helping others. C. I am verbally fluent. A. I think about my goals and how to attain them. B. I think about my feelings and the feelings of others. . I think about ways to change people. Significance of the study: Managing a group of people with different personalities is never easy. Gender difference exists in various aspects. The treatment given to men might not always be suitable to women. This research will help the managers to understand the prevailing gender gap in the organization. Knowledge of this information on gender gap would guide managers to use the proper motivation technique and allocate suitable tasks to the employees according to their personality.
Limitation of the study: As the target of this research was small financial cooperatives located at Narrowed, these cooperatives had limited number of employees ranging from 4-8 which resulted in small number of sample for the survey. The survey was conducted mostly through online channels using Google form. Because of their busy schedule, the employees found it easier and less time consuming o fill survey via online in their leisure time than providing an appointment for face-to-face interaction.