Geologic Resources: Renewable & Nonrenewable

smelting
process in which a desired metal is separated from the other elements in an ore mineral
net energy
total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used, automatically wasted, and unnecessarily wasted in finding, prcessing, concentrating, and transporting it to users
Net Energy of Oil

high, because much of it comes from large, accessible deposits

 

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when sources are depleted, it will decrease

Nuclear Net Energy
low, because large amounts of energy are needed to extract, convert, build, and store
Natural Gas Net Energy
high; use will rise once oil is depleted
How long will oil last?

World: 53 years at current usage rate,

42 years if consumption increases by 2%

US: 15-24 years, or 10-15 years if consumption increases, as predicted; additional oil reserves MIGHT add up to 24 years

How long will natural gas last?

World: 125 years, or 200 years if using unconventional as well

US: 65-80 years

How long will coal last?

World: 225 years at current usage, 65 years if 2% increase in consumption

 

unidentified resources could possibly last up to 1000 years!

Where are the world’s oil reserves?
Middle East
Where are the world’s Natural Gas Reserves?
Russia, Kazakhstan 
Where are the world’s Coal Reserves?
United States, Russia, China, India
How much of the world’s oil is used by the US annually?
30%
Oil Shale
Fine-grained rock containing various amounts of kerogen, a solid, waxy mix of hydrocarbon compounds.
What Oil Shale is Used For
the kerogen can be distilled by heating it in a large container to yeild shale oil; could meet country’s crude oil demand for about 40 years at current use; potential global supplies are 200x larger than supplies of conventional oil
What gases are in Natural Gas?
methane (50-90%), ethane, propane, and butane
LNG

liquiefied natural gas; at a very low temp, natural gas can be converted to this

;

highly flammable; can be shipped in tankers

LPG
liquefied petroleum gas; stored in pressurized tanks for use mostly in rural areas not served by NG pipes
Secondary Oil Recovery
heavier crude oil left in wells are removed during this; pump water under high pressure into nearby well to force oil through rock pores to original well, pumping oil and water to surface, separating the heavy oil, and reusing the oil
Top 2 Largest Sources of Energy that Produce Most of World’s Electricity

1. Oil

2. Natural Gas

Nuclear Fission
nuclear change in which the nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers are split apart into lighter nuclei when struck by a neutron; releases energy and neutrons!
Nuclear Fusion
nuclear change in which 2 nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low mass number are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus; releases large amount of energy!
How is Nuclear Fission Regulated in a Nuclear Reactor?
moderated by the insertion of control rods, which absorb some of the neutrons, preventing the reaction from going supercritical and possibly leading to a meltdown. The amount of power being produced, or in other words the intensity of the reaction, is controled by how much of how many control rods are inserted into the core
Do we Use Neclear Fusion, and Why?
after 50 years of research, it is still in lab stage; no tests have produced more energy than used; estimated cost of commercial fusion reactor is several times that of a conventional fission reactor
How is Electricity made in a Nuclear Power Plant?
cool water is heated, let off as steam which spins the turbine, then let out;  the generator creates waste heat and 25-30% useful energy
Peat
accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter; under proper conditions, will turn into coal over time
Subsurface Mining
extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from a deep underground deposit
Contour Strip Mining
Form of minging used on hilly or mountaious terrain; a power shovel cuts a series of terraces into the side of a hill; earthmover removes overburden, & a power shovel extracts the coal, with overburden from each new terrace dumped onto the one below
Area Strip Mining
surface mining usingwhere terrain is flat; earthmover strips overburden, power shovel digs to remove mineral deposit; trench filled with overburden, new cut made parallel to previous
Dredging
type of surface mining in which chain buckets and draglines scrape up sand, gravel, & other deposits covered with water;  also removes sediment from streams and harbors to maintain shipping channels
Open Pit Mining
removing minerals such as gravel, sand, and metal ores by digging them out of the earth’s surface and leaving an open pit
Energy Efficiency
% of total energy input that does useful work and is not converted to low quality heat
Least Energy Efficient

5%- incandescant light bulb

10-14%- internal combustion energy

8-14%- nuclear power to heat home/water

Calculate Energy Efficiency
multiply at every level
Igneus

made from magma

granite

basalt

Rock Cycle

Igneous-(weathering)-;sedimentary-(cooling,melting)-;igneous

;

igneous-(extreme temp/press)-;metamorphic-(weathering)-;sedimentary-(cooling)-;Igneus

Compaction
transportation of sediment
Convection Cell
[image]
Divergent Boundary
linear feature that exists between two;tectonic plates;that are moving away from each other
Convergent Boundary
two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of;lithosphere;move toward one another and collide. As a result of pressure and friction and plate material melting in the;mantle, earthquakes and;volcanoes;are common near convergent boundaries.
Transform Boundary

;fault;which runs along the boundary of atectonic plate. The relative;motion;of such plates is;horizontal


found on the ocean floor, where they often offset active;spreading ridges;to form a zigzag plate boundary. However, the best-known transform faults are found on land

Epicenter
point on Earth’s surface that is directly above focus
Focus
site of an earthquake (underground)
Magnitude
measure of energy (Richter scale)
1-3.9 on Richter Scale
Insignificant
4-4.9 on Richter Scale
Minor
5 on Richter Scale
Damaging Minor
6 on Richter Scale
Destructive
7 on Richter Scale
Major
8 on Richter Scale
Great
Mercalli Scale
measures intensity of earthquakes
Primary Effects of Earthquake
Earth Slip
Secondary Effects of Earthquake
rock slide, aftershocks, fire, flooding, tsunami
ejecta
chunks of cool rock, molten ash out of a volcano
Volcanic Gases
water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide
Composite Volcano
On continent (Mt Saint Helens); violent; ash & rock ejecta; granite; steep; convergent boundaries
Shield Volcano
in the ocean (Muana Loa); quiet & liquid; shield shape; basalt; divergent boundaries; hot spots
Soil Composition
eroded rock, decaying organic matter, billions of microorganisms, mineral nutrients, water, air
Soil Profile Layers from Top to Bottom
O-A-B-C-R
“O” on Soil Profile

Surface Litter Layer

 

roots anchor, water stored, decomposers

“A” on Soil Profile

Topsoil: Humus, Partially decomposed organic matter

 

roots anchor, water stored, decomposers

“B” on Soil Profile

Subsoil

 

sand, silt, clay, gravel

“C” on Soil Profile

Parent Material

 

sand, silt, clay, gravel

“R” on Soil Profile
Bedrock
Leaching
dissolve soil components and carry them away
Topsoil
nonrenewable; 200-1000 years to make 1 inch
Soil Properties
Texture, Porosity
Texture of Soil
clay, silt, sand, loam
Clay Texture
sticky
Silt Texture
smooth
Sand Texture
Gritty
Loam Texture
equal parts; best for growing!
Soil Porosity

measure of volume of pore space

 

determines soil permeability- rate of flow downward, aeration, workability

Soil Erosion
movement of surface litter and topsoil
2 Agents of Soil Erosion
Wind & Water
Sheet Erosion
flat, wide flow of water
Rill Erosion
water cuts small channels
Gully Erosion
water cuts wide gullies
Effects of Soil Erosion

Loss of Soil Fertility, ability to hold water

 

Runoff (pollution, harm to wildlife, clog ditches and channels and resoivoirs)

Increased Risk of Soil Erosion Caused By…
deforestation, plowing, farming on slopes/marginal lands, overgrazing
Problems with Soil Erosion
desertification, salnization, waterlogging
Desertification
Soil Compaction; plants can’t grow!
Salinization
overirrigation, makes soil unstable!
WaterLogging
too much irrigation
Soil Conservation

Reduce Soil Erosion

;

Restore Soil Fertility

Reducing Soil Erosion
conservation tillage, terracing (steep), contour farming (gentle slope)
Restoring Soil Fertility
animal maneur, green maneur, compost, crop rotation, inorganic fertilizers