GEV Test 2: book

______________ continually renews the supply of fresh water on land, which is essential to terrestrial organisms
The hydrologic cycle continually renews the supply of fresh water on land, which is essential to terrestrial organisms
Lakes, creeks, streams, rivers, and groundwater account for only a small portion—about ________%—of Earth’s fresh water.
0.03%;Lakes, creeks, streams, rivers, and groundwater account for only a small portion;about 0.

03%;of Earth’s fresh water.

what are areas of land covered with water for at least part of the year?
wetlands
wetlands
areas of land covered with water for at least part of the year
watershed/ drainage basin
A land area that delivers water into a stream or river system.
Aquifers
Underground caverns and porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock in which groundwater is stored.
unconfined aquifers
the layers of rock above are porous and allow surface water directly above them to seep downward, replacing the aquifer contents.

The upper surface of the saturated zone of groundwater.
water table
confined aquifer

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In a confined aquifer, groundwater is stored between two impermeable layers and is often under pressure.  The water in a confined aquifer is trapped and often under pressure.

 Artesian wells, which produce water from confined aquifers, often do not require pumping because of this pressure.

is groundwater renewable or non-renewable?
Most groundwater is considered a nonrenewable resource because it has taken hundreds or even thousands of years to accumulate, and usually only a small portion of it is replaced each year by percolation of precipitation. The recharge of confined aquifers is particularly slow.
Water resource problems fall into three categories:
1.too much,2.too little,3.

poor quality/contamination.  Water resource problems fall into three categories: too much, too little, and poor quality/contamination.

The area bordering a river channel that has the potential to flood. =
floodplain
Aquifer depletion
The removal of ground-water more rapidly than it can be recharged by precipitation or melting snow. In addition, aquifer depletion from porous sediments causes subsidence, or sinking, of the land above it.

The removal of ground-water more rapidly than it can be recharged by precipitation or melting snow =
aquifer depletion
Saltwater intrusion
occurs along coastal areas when groundwater is depleted faster than it recharges The movement of sea-water into a freshwater aquifer located near the coast; caused by aquifer depletion.
The movement of sea-water into a freshwater aquifer located near the coast; caused by aquifer depletion. =
saltwater intrusion
Colorado River Compact

  • It stipulates an annual allotment of 7.5 million acre-feet of water to the lower Colorado (California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico) and the remainder to the upper Colorado (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming).
  • However, the Colorado River Compact overestimated the average annual flow of the Colorado River, which at the time was thought to be 15 million acre-feet.
  • Consequently, the Colorado River water is often completely consumed before it can reach the Pacific Ocean
  • To compound the problem, as more and more water is used, the lower Colorado becomes increasingly salty as it flows toward Mexico; in places, the Colorado River is saltier than the ocean.
  • In 2003 California agreed to withdraw no more water from the Colorado River than the Colorado River Compact permits.

The most important of all the treaties regulating use of Colorado River water is the….
1922 Colorado River Compact
Ogallala Aquifer
the largest groundwater deposit in the world 

takes hundreds or even thousands of years to renew after it is withdrawn to grow crops and raise cattle.
[image]
  

the largest groundwater deposit in the world
Ogallala Aquifer
______eliminated some major pollution sources, and the water in the Rhine River today is almost as pure as drinking water
Rhine Action Plan
The Rhine River drains five European countries
Switzerland, Germany, France, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
Benefits of Dams

  1. Dams ensure a year-round supply of water in areas with seasonal precipitation or snowmelt.

  2. Dams confine water in reservoirs, from which the flow is regulated
  3. Dams have other benefits, particularly the generation of electricity (recall the discussion of dams and hydroelectric power.

Which is a method of desalinization that involves forcing salt water through a membrane permeable to water but not to salt?

reverse osmosis

The country of India has 20% of the world’s population but has access to only what percentage of the world’s fresh water?
4%
A xeriscaped yard:
[image] A.

contains rocks and native plants requiring little water.