more frequent heat waves, more intense and longer droughts, shifting crop patterns, extended wildfire season, more intense storms, melting glaciers, changing sea level, increase in water vapor, expansion of malaria
what and when is kyoto protocol?
159 country signatories, 38 mandated to reduce emissions, voluntary limits on developing countries (China!) aims for reduction of 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012
What is COP15?
in Copenhagen, 2009, global agreement on climate change
What to do ourselves?
CFLs, (90bil lbs of CO2) Moving thermostat 2F (2,000lbs/fam) recycling (2400lbs/fam), inflate tires, eat less meat, farmers markets
what is the control for diurnal energy cycles?
insolation, earth’s rotation
equation for net radiation
SWin-SWout + LWin-LWout
what determines daily cycle of temperature?
daily cycle of net radiation
what happens to increase temperature?
positive net radiation
what happens to decrease temp?
net radiation goes negative
what happens to radiation at night?
terrestrial radiation emitted surpasses terrestrial radiation emitted to surface by atmo
what does net radiation graph look like?
like temp graph, but shifted down and to left
what happens at sunrise to net rad and temp?
some solar radiation appears, but it is still negative for awhile, so temp still decreases, coldest about 2 hrs after sunrise
What happens when net radiation = 0 in morning?
minimum temp, then increase
what makes the net radiation go positive in morning?
as sun moves higher in sky, more solar radiation reaches surface, net rad = positive
when does solar radiation peak? what’s going on with temp?
peaks at noon, when sun is highest in sky. maximum net radiation of the day. temp still increasing
what happens in late afternoon?
the sun moves lower in the sky, net radiation decreases to 0, at 0, maximum temperature (3pm)
what happens in evening to net radiation?
net radiation goes negative again, temp starts to decrease.
what do clouds do to net radiation?
decrease daytime temp by lowering insolation and increase night time temp by rereflecting LW
what month is net rad highest?
what month is temp highest?
what month is the min of net radiation?
which month is coldest?
what are controls of latitudinal variations in energy?
daylength and solar altitude angle
what happens to net radiation at poles during winter?
net radiation goes negative for whole time
what is specific heat?
the heat required to raise 1g of water by 1C
What has a low Specific heat?
what has a high specific heat?
what does water do to temp variability
it dampens it (HAHA)
why doesnt land retain temperature?
no mixing of surface and inner soil, the surface is opaque and there is no evaporation