Going to the dentist is not typically fun, but very important. Our teeth need to make sure they are healthy and clean for a good lifestyle. Believe it or not, many people develop cavities sometime in their lifetime and most people handle the problem by having dental fillings to take care of the problem. Dental fillings are not only useful for cavities, they are also recieved for chipped or broken tooth. There are two stages to this process, first, you will have your teeth cleaned out and everything removed that would damage your teeth even more. Then, your dentist will fill your teeth with your choice of filling to support and provide strength. This can be done while the person is awake or under anesthesia. Some benefits for only having one tooth that is decayed is that the treatment is a short procedure and can be completed in roughly about one hour and does not require an additional check up anytime after the procedure. Most people have dental insurance, so the treatment is typically covered or the remaining balance after insurance coverage isn’t as high. Dental specialist use fillings that are the same color and that will blend in with the rest of the teeth. This means that other people usually can’t tell if you have dental fillings due to cavities. Additionally, tooth fillings can typically last several years depending on which type of filling is received. By not getting treatment, you could remain in pain for a long time and your tooth won’t get any better. Polymers are composed of monomers, which are the basic building blocks of life, making up carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. That is the scientific scope within which they are are often considered, but in fact they are often found in daily life. They can be used in plastics, for fiber making, and many other normal items that do so much more beyond the scope of a science classroom. They can even be found on a normal trip to the dentist, along with composites, which together make up a very important part of today’s dentistry industry.Hydroxyapatite (Ca5PO4 3(OH)) is an inorganic compound, meaning it does not contain a carbon atom, that is found the human body’s hard tissues, which are most notably bones and teeth. The enamel, the protective outer layer of teeth is the hardest of all of these tissues. It is composed of approximately 92% hydroxyapatite and is a ceramic material. Just below this lies the rest of the tooth made of a composite material called dentin which is made of a variety of things including hydroxyapatite once again, as well as the organic substance collagen, water, and salts. Teeth are exposed to a rather hostile environment, what with the frozen ice that they chew on, the hot liquids that pass them by, highly variable pH balances due to the number of foods that they chew, and the physical damage that chewing itself does. Caries, the term for tooth decay, is what happens when teeth are consistently exposed to carbohydrate-heavy foods, which are those containing sugar and starch, including some fruits and vegetables, potatoes, milk, most sweets and carbonated beverages. Plaque can form when bacteria that naturally lives in the mouth builds up heavily and it creates a film over the teeth as bacteria reproduce. This is why it’s important to brush twice a day: so plaque doesn’t build up onto the tooth (Hadlington, 2010). When all of those carbohydrate heavy foods come in contact with the bacteria they begin to create acids. Eventually they will damage the tooth enamel by dissolving the hydroxyapatite that is meant to protect the teeth. Saliva does some to combat that but too much plaque and acid will succeed in removing enamel and allowing for cavities to set in. These cavities typically cause no discomfort to the person with them, that is, up until the point that they destroy the nerves as well as blood vessels nestled in the tooth. That is why dentists always recommend filling cavities with all possible haste. Typically, dental specialist use a silver metal to fill in tooth cavities when a filling is necessary. The material used for the filling is amalgam. Dental amalgam is also known as silver filling. Amalgam is consisted of chemical elements such as mercury, silver, copper, zinc, and tin. It is primarily made up of mercury, which is about 50% of the compound, followed by silver which is 30% of the compound, and then the rest consist of copper, zinc, and tin (Hadlington, 2010). Mercury is needed to bind the metals together so it can provide a hard and sturdy filling. Dental amalgam has been used for the past 160 years and is still very common and effective. Due to the durability, dental amalgam is usually used for back teeth fillings since it’s stronger compared to white fillings (Delta Dental, 2012). On the other hand, white fillings are commonly used on the front teeth in most humans, but can also be used on back teeth. The white filling that is routinely used by dentists is either glass ionomer cements or composite fillings; however, other types of white filling materials can also be used. Composite fillings are consisted of ceramic and plastic compounds. The reason white fillings are more common in front teeth compared to back teeth is because the material used in white fillings appears to make the teeth look more natural (Delta Dental, 2012). Glass ionomer cements is made up of aqueous polymeric acids. This includes basic glass powders and and polyacrylic acid.Composite fillings utilized for dental fillings in teeth are made up of silica or glass particles bound with a polymer tar. The polymers that are utilized as the pitch in composites for fillings depend on monomer called meth acrylic corrosive. The polymer pitch is typically loaded with between 35 to 85% glass filler. The method used to put a composite filling in a tooth includes a few stages. In the first place, the tooth must be prepared and ready for the procedure. It is carved with corrosive to evacuate garbage, and cement is connected. The dissolvable in the cement is then dissipated. Next, the depression is loaded with a layer of composite. This layer is solidified by sparkling a light on it – a procedure called photograph curing. The light makes the monomer particles respond with each other and connection together to frame a strong gum (Hadlington, 2010). The tar contracts a bit of amid polymerization, so a few progressive composite layers are included and photograph cured. Photograph curing is valuable since it permits the dental practitioner time to work with the material, building and forming it effectively before it is presented to light. At the point when the dental specialist is prepared, the filling can be solidified promptly by sparkling light on it. At last, the filling is cleaned.One similarity between glass ionomer fillings and composite fillings is that they both use a polymer resin. Conversely, the filling material for glass ionomer fillings consist of strontium, fluoride, and phosphate ions. One advantage of this filling compared to the composite filling is that cooperates with the enamel in the tooth. This will form a closure or seal between the tooth and the filling. Another benefit of why glass ionomer fillings are advantageous over composite fillings is that since the filling material contains fluoride ions, it helps strengthen the teeth and this helps prevent further decay. This is due to the fact that the fluoride ions are constantly released because of the reaction or response to continual saliva. However, glass ionomer cements also have disadvantages such as the fact that they are weaker than composite fillings, even if it’s just normal chewing that’s being done. Due to science, medicine is constantly changing, adapting, and most importantly, advancing. Without science, medicine in America would not be as far in advance as it is right now. Chemistry can be defined as the branch of science that studies the different structures of substances as well as how and when those substances react. Chemistry relates to dentistry for many reasons: chemistry is used during the breakdown of food, when adding materials together for fillings, and more.