How reason;also : the skilled use of reason”

How should intelligence be tested?Einstein once said “everybody is a genius but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid”. Figuring out what intelligence is and how to test it has been an ongoing scientific and psychological debate for a significant amount of time. Many have tried to define this broad idea for ages, famous scientists like Albert Einstein, and a famous philosopher by the name of Socrates. If you ask someone their opinion of what intelligence is you will get a variety of answers, such as intelligence is common sense, or how good you are at math and language arts. Some people may think that intelligence is something that you are born with. After defining this abstract function the next step was figuring out a way  on how to measure it. There is an intelligence test that has been made. There have been many revisions made to try and “better” represent a person’s intelligence, and these revisions are still happening today. Along with the question of accuracy  the current testing, there were theories being produced that dispute of the idea of general intelligence, such as Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory, Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence, as well as the testing of intelligence, and many people are uncertain of their beliefs on intelligence. Should these theories be taken into account for an intelligence test, and if so, how should intelligence be tested?According to Merriam-Dictionary, intelligence is “the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : reason;also : the skilled use of reason” According to Oxford Dictionaries, intelligence is “A person or being with the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.”  Even the world’s best dictionaries don’t have the same definition. So this poses the question can you define intelligence into one definition? In 1904, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, two french psychologists, came up with the first idea of intelligence and a way to test it. They came up with a test that represented Children’s abilities at different ages, known as the Binet Simon Scale, and tested fifty children in French schools, ten children in each of the five age groups.  The students were recommended by their teachers as being “average” . An american psychologist, Charles Spearman evolved Binet’s idea to become a widely accepted term of intelligence called “general intelligence” also known as factor “g”. Spearman believed that human intelligence was derived from a single energy or quantity in the brain, and that if an individual is knowledgeable of one subject, there is a high probability they are knowledgeable in a different subject too. He saw that mental abilities, such as logic and linguistics, are positively correlated, and therefore they could be accurately measured and put into a single number representation by taking this mental ability test. The IQ test has a long history of revisions and setbacks on getting accurate results in testing. Intelligence testing made public education an equal and fair opportunity because back then it depended on race, ethnicity and your cultural background to even be granted an opportunity to have an education. The first intelligence test as i had mentioned before was the Binet-Simon scale, used by French psychologists Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. When the IQ test was brought to America, Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman had taken the original test and standardized it. He renamed the test to be called the Stanford-Binet test. The two found a way to represent intelligence by one number, known as the “Intelligence Quotient(IQ)” They would divide the individual’s mental age by their chronological age and then multiply it by 100. A mental age is a person’s mental ability expressed as the age at which an average person reaches the same ability such as such as a five year old only being able to grasp the concepts of what two year olds can do. A chronological age is your actual age. After the Stanford-Binet test, which is still a test that is used today(with revisions), the next test developed was the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale(WAIS). This was created by David Wechsler. Wechsler agreed with Binet that intelligence was a set of mental abilities, but was not satisfied by the limitations of the Stanford-Binet test. The WAIS has been growing and developing over the years now and is now called Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV). Wechsler had soon after made a test that children could take called the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC) and had made a school called the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence(WPPSI). The WAIS-IV scored intelligence in 4 different categories: verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index, working memory index, and processing and speed index. The WAIS-IV helps when testing for specific learning disabilities, because for example you can see if an individual scored higher in some categories then other categories. From personal experience i feel that intelligence testing is good if you want to test your academic skills because it is highly based on linguistics and mathematics, but if you were taking it to see how smart you were it isn’t worth taking because it is immensely difficult and some of the questions are absurd. Here is an example of one of the questions you might see on an IQ test: What is the next term in the following sequence: 1, 2, 5, 14, 41, 122? I am not very bright when it comes to writing essays i don’t really pre-write or any of that I tend to just write whatever comes to my head as I am writing about a topic, so if i were going to take an IQ test i would struggle at the english section. As for math i find math most of the time challenging and hard to figure things out and it is shown that on an IQ test that problem solving is a huge factor in the test. I feel that there are definitely some changes that should come into the making of this test because if i were to take it i think i would not do so well. Many psychologists have attempted to create a theory to do so, but it is very difficult to change the definition of intelligence or even the testing of it. I feel that the way the IQ test is now is the way people were conditioned to think an IQ test is meant to be, in other words the IQ test has been assessing the ability of problem solving, linguistics, and mathematics for so long people think that that is what it is meant to be, they think it is all about your ability to solve a mathematics word problem but it shouldn’t be, it should be something where everyone has an equal opportunity to get a good score in.   Robert Sternberg is an American psychologist that decided to view intelligence in a different perspective and created what is known as the Triarchic theory of intelligence. Sternberg did not like the idea of how the IQ test was represented. “Sternberg notes on many occasions that what most IQ tests measure is only the componential/analytical component of intelligence.” Sternberg’s theory consists of three “factors” of intelligence: practical intelligence, creative intelligence, and analytical intelligence. Practical intelligence is known as the ability that individuals use to find the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment. Practical intelligence can be referred to as “common sense”. Creative intelligence is creating new ideas and how to approach new information and situations. It includes how you apply your existing knowledge to new ideas. Analytical intelligence is also referred to as componential intelligence, includes academic tasks, problem-solving abilities, and abstract reasoning. Whenever you have to complete a task that requires you to compare, contrast, evaluate, analyze, or make a logical judgment you are using analytical intelligence. This is what many people think the IQ test is, but with every theory there are problems. “The major point of criticism focus on the disabilities of reliably measuring “uncontroversial”(e.g., creative and practical) abilities and differentiating them psychometrically from abilities measured by more conventional tests of intelligence and achievement. These criticisms, however, are not specific to Sternberg’s work and are often extended to work on MI theory”(Grigorenko) Many argue that this theory does not acknowledge genetic factors of intelligence. Others say that although this theory is relative, that does not make it scientific. Some agree with part of the theory, but argue that practical intelligence is just “job smart” or personality, not intelligence. Of course the major problem is that it is very difficult to measure creativity and abstract methods, so this theory has not been considered intelligence testing. Howard Gardner came up with a theory of his own, the Multiple Intelligences(MI) theory. This theory consists of seven or eight different types of intelligences: Visual/Spatial, Bodily/kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, linguistic, logical/mathematical and sometimes Naturalistic is included. Visual/Spatial intelligence refers to your ability to interpret and create visual images, and being able to apply relationships between space and effect. A person who has a strong Visual/Spatial intelligence would pursue a career in architecture or engineers. Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence is your eye and body coordination, along with your agility and balance. This intelligence would be in a professional sports player or dancer. Musical is referring to your rhythmic and sound appreciation abilities. These would be your DJs were composers. Interpersonal intelligence is your abilities to relate to others and a counselor would be an individual with a strong interpersonal relationship. Interpersonal intelligence is one’s capability to understand themselves. People with a strength in this we try to change your info and spiritual or religious beliefs. Linguistic is intelligence in written and spoken words and mathematical/logical your ability to analyze problems. A journalist would have a high linguistic intelligence and a statistician would most likely have a high mathematical/logical intelligence. The final intelligence, naturalistic, is defined as relationship to nature. Hikers or park rangers are a good example of people with a strong naturalistic intelligence. This theory has received extreme negative feedback. It gives people the idea that  “everybody in their own way” but he is more of a “feel good” method rather than a scientific one. Also, there is no evidence to actualizes theory and it would be almost impossible to test.      David Perkins is a strong supporter of Howard Gardner, but he believed that intelligence is not fixed, and can be improved by better teaching methods. In his theory, Perkins states that I Q consist of three components: neural intelligence is  is a neural networks software application designed to assist neural network, data mining, pattern recognition, and predictive modeling experts in solving real-world problems. Experimental intelligence is and individuals acquiring and skillfulness in different areas. The last segment of Perkins theory, reflective intelligence, is your problem solving skills and how you approach challenging situations. This theory is better accepted then the Triarchic theory because it is evidence-based, and with many others strengths.