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What is the most used source of energy in the Us
crued oil: to make gasoline for cars and trucks
Prior to the 1950s what was the most used source of energy in the US
what is the most abundant fossil fuel in the US
what is the primary enrgy source for the production of electricity


name the 3 most commonly used fossil fuels


crude oil (petroleum)


natural gas 

describe the occupational and environmental effects of coal extraction

both methods damage the enviornment

deep mining is more dangerous for the worker 

what is black lung disease

is the common name for coal workers CWP or anthracnose

a lung disease of older workers in the coal industry 

be able to match energy sources with primary uses

oil: transportaion and industry

Natural Gas: industry, residental, commercial

Coal: electric power

Others(nuclears and renewables): electrical power 

what is the net energy yield of coal

what are the pollution credits

what are their advantages and limitations 

credits: an industry is allowed to pollute a certain amount vased on past performance

advantages and limitations: if they produce less than the stated amount of pollution they get a credit that can be sold to another company


describe Us oil production and consumption over time

we use the most oil i the world

the cost of crude oil is increasing because until recently the oil cost about the same as 2000 as in 1975 when adjusted for inflation

major oil reserves: saudi arabia 25.5% 

what is ANWR

Artic National Wildlife Refuge

proponents believe there are huge quantities of oil located in this protected area

opponents estimate there is no more than six months supply of oil at current consukptio rates and that it will take 7-10 years to develop the fields

their biggest concer that development of these fields will destrpy a fragile habitat 

what are issues with other fossil fuel sources like shale oil and tar sands

a lot of them but to get them out you need to strip a lot of land to get them

you can make money 

how much energy in the US is wasted

84% of all commercial nergy in the US is wasted

people in the IS waste as much energy as 2/3 of the worlds population consumes

the answer: energy efficiency 

what are some examples of ways we can increase energy efficiency

energy efficient homes

water heaters

air conditioners


and heating systems 

what is life cycle cost

initial cost to buy the appliance plus the life time operating costs of an item or appliance

important to consider: if we father in life cycle cose were saving money 

are high levels of energy use necessary to maintain a high standard of living
what are some ways the energy efficiency could be increased in industry

replacing energy- wasting electric motors

switch to high efficiency lighting-florescent lights

recycling and reuse

run high energy consuming tasks during low customer demand hours 


replacing old motors demand management 

what are some examples of energy efficiency improvements in buildings

straw bale houses

double pane windows

better insulation

plugging leaks and repairing cracks 

what is demand management

give customers cash rebates for buyng energy efficient lights and appliances

provide savings to a customers who reduce the use of energy utilities

offer reduced rates for allowing the power to be turned off for a specific length of time 

what are ways of balancing energy uses and demand



demand management 

what is co generation

large complexes are built with their own power generation equipment to make electricity. this is more efficient in two ways

1. there is no need to transmit the energy over great distances

2. the waste heat created from making the electricity may be captured for use in heating the buildings when needed 

which source of human made radiation typically? contributes more exposure

nuclear power

nuclear waste

medical dental x rays 

medical practices

dental x rays

more common for us 

why is radiation used in medicine

to find and fight diseases

mammograms x rays use to kill cancer

radiation induced cancer-association with low level exposure

lukemia is an example for radiation induced malingnancy 

what is ionizing radiation

energetic forms of radiation

forms of ionizing radiation:

aplpha particlees-helium nucleus

beta particles-electron

gamma rays(photons) xrays 

what are some health effects of ionizing radiation

radiation induced mutations

radiation and birth defects

radiation induced cancer 

what happened at chernobyl and 3mile island power plants

chernobyl: locating in Ukraine in 1986

reactor lost coolant 

had a complete melt down resulting in a series of massive explosions

estimates of deaths vary from 3576 to about 3200

400,000 were permanetly evacuated 


3mile: located near harrisbug PA in 1979 suffered a partial melt down of its core when coolant was lost due to mechanical failures and human errors

amount of radiation released is unknown

100,000 people evacuated 

explain the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion

nuclear fission

occurs when an unstable element such as U235 splits apart, releasing free neutrons and by products (heat)


nuclear fusion

occurs when elements such as hydrogen are forced to join together and form a new element such as helium. this provess also generates free neutrons and heat but no other by products 

which one is used to make nuclear pwer
describe what happens in a chain reaction

when a U235 atom disintegrates it releases free neutrons

these free neutrons may stike other U235 atoms causing them to disintergrate 

compare the enviornmental and health effects of nuclear energy compared to coal

both sources must be mined processes and transported

nuclear power plants do not emit air pollutants so long as they are operating properly

more attractive then fossil fuels for reducing the threat of global warming

but disruption of land and water pollution are concerns from uranium mining damage and tailings and thermal poolution of water systems 

what is nuclear reprocessing

waste fission products accumulate in rods

these spent rods are removed and replaced with fresh rods

spent fuel rods are highly radioactive and are initially stored in swimming pool like cooling tanks before reprocessing of the spent rod occurs

france and the united kingdom reprocess spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors 

how do we deal with nuclear waste in the us


want to put it in the mt. yucca in nevada 

no nuclear reprocessing in the us too radioactive

how is solar energy created in the sun
originates from thermonuclear fusion reactisn occurring in the sun
what are some solar energy uses

hot water heating

solar space heating

space and hot water heating

producing electrical power 

explain the difference between active solar collections and passive solar heating

active- pumped involved. heating absorbed fluid. need a collector when sun shines on tubes of water or air

passive- using natural material structures with no moving aprts to simply gather and hold heat 

describe the role of solar power in the us energy picture

by linking panels


if back up is required how might this be done
stay connected to the grid
what are solar cells also called photovoltaic ells and are the cost effective

they are cells with a thin wafer of material with wires on top and on the bottom

as the sunlight strikes the cells electrical current is created

if you have enough of these cells linked together you can use it to power calculators watches pumps traffic singlas lighthouses even your home 

what are some other forms of power


wind power

fuel cells

ocean thermal energy converter

geothermal energy

tidal power 

what are 2 ways of using geothermal energy

direct use- heating unit that has coils that go down in the earth and heats from under

using hot springs to heat building or drive turbogenerators

guser- drill pipe and capture the steam


50-70% effecient 

what does bioconversion mean


burning firewood

burning municipal waste

producing methane

producing alchol as a fuel 

what is an enviornmental world view

how people think the world works

what their role hsould be

what they think is right or wrong behavior regarding the enviornment 

what are examples of individual world views

no problem school: science can fix anything

free market school: government is bad and buisness industry is all that matters

responsible planetary management: it is our best interest to manage resources wisely

the stewarship school: an ethical responsility to care for the world 

what is an earth centered worldview

stresses the intrinsic value of other species

stresses the importance of sustainability 

what is the effect of political world views on the enforcement of enviornmental laws

politics as a power

gorups work together to establish plicies of self interests 

free market world view 

how does our lifestyle affect sustainability

rational choice

eastablishing policy that has the greatest culmulative benefit and least negative impact 

list the major enviormental impacts of urban sprawl

depletion of natural land

air pollution

water pollution and degradation of water resources

loss of landscapees and wildlife

loss of agricultural land

airport noise 

what federal law had the greatest effect on creating of urban sprawl
has construction of ne highways reduced the average communte time
the average commuting distance has soubled since 1960 but the average commuting time has remined about the same until you reach the city then everything slows down
explain the difference between clustered and detached housing development

instead of conventional detached homes cluster home are higher in density

larger amounts of wild space is left intact

saves the city and county money in utilities construction trash pickup snow removal 

what are green buildings

building construction uses significant amounts of natural resouces

inefficient buildings waste significant amounts of energy

demolition of buildings containing hazardous materials presents a significant hazard to workers and the enviornment 

why is pollution prevention more cost effective than pollution clean up
describe the shape of the curbe of the cost for removal of pollutants

what is enviornmental justice

give an example of envioronmental racism 

justice has to do with distribution of things: good things- jobs education goods and services

bad things- toxic and hazardous wates 


**people of color and other thnic groups ar emore likely to suffer negative ffects from environmental hazards 

what is the precautionary principle

how is this different from risk analysis 

assume the chemical is dangerous until proben otherwise because of chronic diseases 20 yrs to figure out

different from risk anlysis by: risk analysis is an evaluation of the short term and long term risks associated with the particular activity or hazard usually compared with benefits in a cost benefit analysis 

what are some ways that an individual can affect society

individual lifestyle change

political involvement

membership and participation in non governmental organziations

career choices while the number of jobs are increasing the number of students entering envronmental majors is decreasing 

what are some individual lifestyle changes that can improve the environment


switch to more fuel efficient car

recycling paper cans and bottles

backyard garden coposting recycling

recycling food and garden wastes into your soil

live closer to your workplace-live in a cluster development 

how will political involvement help

1. write letter

2. phone call

3. email

make it known you care about the enviornment

vote for someone who reflects your position 

what are non profit enviornmental organizations

give examples 

Audobahn society-birds

Ecology Action Center- edu about the enviornment

greenways project- old railways turned into walking trails (constitution trail)

peace corps 


define the terms sustainable society and environmental stewardship

sustainable- a society the functions in a way so as not to deplete energy or material resources on which it depends

stewardship- active care and conern for nature and the environment thru:

ecosystem sustainability

pollution prevention

wise stewarship 

where will the us storage site for nuclear waste be located
yucca mts nevada