Humanities Final Exam – Answer First

What common technique used to make jewelry employs gold with colorful enamel and semi-precious stones?

the rigid hierarchical society
What aspect of Anglo-Saxon traditions is demonstrated most prominently in Beowulf?

What distinctive literary feature, common to Old English literature, is used throughout Beowulf?

combine pagan and Christian styles
Early illuminated manuscript pages in England and Ireland are considered syncretic because they

to give the spiritual world material splendor
Why did Christian missionaries in England create illuminated manuscripts?

to establish a curriculum that would promote literacy
What was the primary job of Alcuin of York in Charlemagne’s court at Aachen?

Which term describes music that is repeated for each stanza of a poem?

aristocratic women
A monastic lifestyle was most commonly afforded to

the Norman invasions of Northern Europe
What caused the feudal system to be cemented in France, the western Carolingian Empire?

the extraordinary inequalities between rich and poor
What does the Domesday Book demonstrate about feudal society in medieval Europe?

Christian saints and martyrs
Along the pilgrimage routes, sacred sites housed relics, the bones, clothing, and other possessions of

to protect a building from fire
What motivated Romanesque architects to use barrel vaults as ceilings for cathedrals?

the tympanum
What semicircular space beneath the portal arch of Romanesque cathedrals was filled with sculptural relief?

two or more lines of melody
What distinguishes choral music at the Abbey of Cluny from Gregorian chants?

organized disenfranchised members of the aristochracy
How did the Crusades help solve the problems created by the feudal primogeniture system in Europe?

the promise of adventure and money
What encouraged young Christian men to join Crusades?

They stimulated Western trade with the East
What was a positive outcome of the Crusades in the Middle Ages?

love songs expressing longing, originating in southern France
What is troubadour poetry?

They showed that women as well as men could freely express love.
How do poems about courtly love show the remarkable personal freedom of court women of the age?

its use of vernacular language
What was a key factor in the increased popularity of poetry about courtly love in the middle ages?

the love of women celebrated in troubadour poetry
Which element of medieval culture reflects the prominent role of the Virgin Mary in the Middle Ages?

He believed that light was a manifestation of the Divine Spirit.
Why did Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis want to fill the church with large stained-glass windows?

the Queen of Heaven
The cult of the Virgin viewed the Virgin Mary in many roes, including as the bride of Christ, as the personification of the church, and as

Both were didactic services
In Gothic cathedrals, stained glass and portal sculpture served what common purpose?

Who revised the Magnus Libre Organi?

Fluency in what language was required for study in universities in Bologna, Paris, and Oxford?

Who was responsible for the text that for centuries served as the primary medical source on women’s health issues?

Where was Christian Europe’s first degree-granting university?

It challenged the church’s authority
Why did the Church find Peter Abelard’s dialectical method of teaching problematic?

It employs logic and reason in an effort to explain Christian theology.
Which statement best summarizes the goals of scholasticism?

The church beatified him as Saint Louis
How was King Louis IX recognized for his leadership of France?

Al example of a palatine chapel is

attention to naturalistic detail
Based on the text’s discussion, what Northern European tendency is suggested by the intricate floral motifs in Gothic stone and woodwork?

a calendar illustrated with images showing daily life
A Book of Hours typically begins with

flamboyant patterns of repeated traceries
Radiant style is defined by

an association or group of people with like-minded interests or skills
What is a guild

the concern for spatial volumes
In the thirteenth century, the shift toward greater naturalism in Italian art is demonstrated through an inclusion of individualized figures and an emphasis on the Virgin’s humanity, as well as

the civic role of merchants
The Gothic manifested itself in Italy quite differently than in the rest of Europe. Italy’s distinctive characteristics included independence from a king and the Church’s reduced authority, as well as

a free commune
Which term best describes Siena’s civic approach?

her crown
In Simone Martini’s Maesta, what detail contributes to our understanding that the Virgin Mary is interested in both worldly and divine affairs?

in the streets
The term vernacular refers to language spoken

Inflammations caused by the disease were black in color
What is the origin of the term “Black Death”?

Virgil is the embodiment of Dante’s admiration for the original Latin works
The Roman poet Virgil serves as Dante’s guide through the Inferno. What does Virgil symbolize in the poem?

fourteen lines divided into two parts
An Italian or Petrarchan sonnet consists of

the first female professional writer in European history
Christine de Pizan, author of Book of the City of Ladies, is known as

Gates of Paradise
Lorenzo Ghiberti’s east doors to the Florence Baptistry are called the

to encourage the monks to contemplate Christ’s last meal
Why did Leonardo paint the Last Supper in a Dominican refectory?

the ruins of the ancient city
What motivated artists such as Filippo Brunelleschi and Donatello to visit Rome in the fifteenth century?

They used the arts to gain popular support
How did Francesco and Ludovico Sforza’s precarious political situation benefit the arts in Milan?

Which word relates to the Renaissance concern for the intellectual conception underlying artistic design?

fluent in Latin, Greek, French and Spanish and be an accomplished soldier
According to Baldassare Castiglione, an ideal courtier must be

to promote the ability of virtue to overcome tyranny
Why did Donatello create such a slight, young figure for his sculpture of David?

At its highest level, human creativity had the potential to express divine truths.
What belief made the arts such an important priority for humanists such as Lorenzo de’ Medici?

Pope Julius II
Who was responsible for initiating the massive campaign to rebuild Saint Peter’s Basilica and the Vatican?

It reflected the ideal form of a circle inscribed within a square
How did Donato Bramante’s plan for Saint Peter’s Basilica symbolize the perfection of God?

It represents a confident David before the battle.
How does Michelangelo’s sculpture, David, challenge Donatello’s previous version of David?

They were linearly precise and coloristically rich.
How were Raphael’s paintings of Virgin and Child different from the Byzantine examples of the past?

The end justifies the means
Niccolo Machiavelli’s political pragmatism is best summarized in which statements?

a lion
What was the symbol of the city of Venice?

During the Renaissance, Venetian architecture retained what characteristics in a demonstration of the city’s cultural stability?

the gilded arches of the portico
What inspired the name of the Ca’d Oro in Venice?

Titian painted more indirect themes of sensuality
How do Titan’s paintings differ from Giorgione’s paintings?

by transforming the cliches of courtly love into frank erotic metaphors
How did courtesans, such as Veronica Franco, undermine the superior position of men in Italian society?

Pico della Mirandola
Laura Cereta’s assertion that women, like men, can choose to exercise their free will in pursuit of learning parallels the work of which other writer?

managing the domestic affairs of the household
During the Renaissance, what was an Italian wife’s primary responsibility?

A three-paneled, hinged painting is called a(n)

Adam and Eve and the notion of sin
Although the meaning is not fully understood, what subject does Hieronymus Bosch seem to most prominently address in the Garden of Earthly Delights?

It fostered an economic market for artistic production and trade.
How did the growth of a wealthy merchant class affect the development of art in Northern Europe?

oil paint
What allowed fifteenth-century Northern European artists such as Jan van Eyck to create such detailed textures and visual effects in painting?

Matthias Gruenwald’s Isenheim Altarpiece
The subject of which of the following works most underscores the Northern European preoccupation with death and alludes to the recurrence of the plague?

For what offense was Martin Luther excommunicated?

What doctrine posits that God elects people to salvation prior to their birth and those people live self-evidently in a way that pleases God?

the printing press
What new technology, introduced in the mid-fifteenth century, contributed significantly to the widespread effect of the reformation?

Henry VIII’s Dissolution Act of 1536
Which of the following contributed most to London’s growth in the sixteenth century?

the popularity of portraits
Which of the following best reflects England’s focus on individualism that emerged in the sixteenth century?

St. Luke’s Relics reside in Venice’s cathedral.

Madalena Casulana was the first professional woman composer to see her own composition in print.

Venus of Urbino was commissioned to celebrate a marriage.

The vanishing point is behind the head of Christ, directing the viewer’s gaze to the most important part of the work.
What does Masaccio demonstrate with the particular location of the vanishing point in The Tribute Money?

He included a sculpture of himself among the prophets and biblical figures
In what unique way did Lorenzo Ghiberth give himself credit for the design of the Gates of Paradise?

Florence was home to the Medicis, a wealthy and powerful family who supported the city’s guilds and artists
Why was Florence considered the preeminent Italian city-state of the fifteenth century?

Pope Martin V
Which pope returned the papacy to Rome for good in 1420?

Marinella’s defense of women’s education parallels Pico della Mirandola’s work.

Pope Julius II appointed Leonardo as the chief architect of a plan to replace St. Peter’s Basilica with a new church.

Francesco Gonzaga is the author of The Prince.

Tempietto is significant because it embodies Italian humanist architecture due to its Classical influence.

The Lombards forced the local populations of the Po River delta to flee to the swampy lagoon islands that would later become the city of Venice.

He promoted individual free will and the ability to make of themselves what they wish
Why is Pico della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man considered on of the great manifestos of humanism?

in a monastery refectory
Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper is on a wall

Raphael’s School of Athens is reminiscent of Classicism because it offers an illusion of Roman architecture, the painting includes figures of Greek gods and ancient philosophers.

Which of the following artists did the city of Florence commission to create a freestanding statue of the Biblical hero David using a huge cracked block of marble that all other sculptors had abandoned?

He was a great champion of the city’s arts and education.
Why was Lorenzo de’ Medici given the nickname of il Magnifico?

John Knox launched the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

Marsilio Ficino
Who is credited for having the term “Platonic love”?

Indulgences were the primary method Pope Julius II used to finance construction of the new St. Peter’s Basilica.

Baldassare Castiglione
Who is the author of The Book of the Courier, which recounts conversations and debates among humanists in the Montefeltro court?

In which of the following industries were the Medici family members heavily involved?

the Sacrifice of Isaac
Which of the following stories from the Hebrew Bible was assigtopic for the competition to create a new set of doors for the north entrance to the Baptistery at Florence’s Duomo?

According to Machiavelli, the princes preoccupation and primary duty is to govern his subjects.

Franco was the most famous Venetian literary courtesan.

What was the major commodity in Burges?

The church’s response to the reformation was the Counter-Reformation. As part of that movement, the Benedictine’s included among its guidelines Rule 13, which addresses obedience to the authority of the Church

the Merode Altarpiece
Which of the following is a tryptych?

the Garden of Eden
What was depicted in the Garden of Earthly Delights?

Matthial Grunewald
Who created Isenheim Altarpiece

Martin Luther composed “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God.”

Martin Luther translated the Bible in German.

The church encouraged works, deeds, and the sale of indulgences (monetary payment for remission of sinful acts).
Martin Luther’s argument stated that moral virtue is not measured in good deeds but through faith. How might this contradict the church’s views?

its link to the North Sea
What gave Bruges access to mercantile centers?

an abbey’s hospital
For which of the following was the Isenheim Altarpiece commissioned?

Desiderius Erasmus was one of Luther’s teachers.

salvation by faith rather than by works
Which of the following doctrines did Martin Luther support, in direct conflict with the established Church of Rome?

Utopia’s society includes “virtues” esteemed by all such as equality, kindness, and humanity.

It was to let the viewer know he or she was not alone in suffering but Christ also suffered.
Why was the Isenheim Altarpiece installed in its particular position?

One penny was the cheapest price for admission into London theaters.

Ulrich Zwingli was chosen as people’s priest of the Zurich’s Great Minster Church and led the protestants against the Catholics in Switzerland

Hieronymus Bosch
Who created the Garden of Earthly Delights

Song of Roland resulted from a call by William I of Normandy for a complete survey of England so that he could more accurately determine how much tax he could raise to provide a new army.

Guido of Arezzo introduced the idea of depicting notes on a staff of lines so that the same note always appears on the same line-resulting in the birth of modern musical notation.

Odo of Cluny is the author of On the Misery of Human Condition, whose message was adopted as official doctrine of the western Catholic Church.

What city did Eleanor of Aquitaine and her daughter Marie, countess of Champagne., established as the center of secular culture and literary movement that celebrated the art of courtly love?

Viderunt Omnes is a collection of musical works created by many composers-a collection in which the pieces are arranged in cycles to provide music for all the feast days of the Church calendar.

courtesy verging on reverence toward women
The code of conduct that guided a knight included courage in battle, loyalty to his lord and peers, and

In which of the following cities did Robert de Sorbon play a significant role in organizing students?

Ambrogio Lorenzetti
Who painted the fresco known as the Allegory of Good Government?

the madrasa
Which of the following was the precursor for the university system?

Dante Alighieri
Who is the author of Divine Comedy?

Bayeux Tapestry
Which of the following documents the Norman invasion of England in 1066?

chester as in Winchester
Which of the following words of Saxon origin can be translated as “camp”?

To perpetuate the spread of the Christian gospel, ______ established a unified system of basic education for children

Reason can never know God directly
Why would conservative Christians be reluctant to accept Thomas Aquinas’ writings on God?

The Canterbury Tales
Which of the following is composed of heroic couplets?

Paris was considered the “spiritual center” of the cult of the Virgin during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

Feudalism was originally modeled after the Roman custom of patronage
Feudalism, a system in which a person (vassal) pledged loyalty for protection, was a well-established part of the agricultural system of the Middle Ages. How did this system relate to that of earlier hierarchies?

Whose “Rule” (set of guidelines) was imposed on all monasteries throughout Charlemagne’s Frankish kingdom?

The royal family entered on the same level as the dramatic stained glass, which would mirror Louis’ own eminence, while others had to enter the chapel on the ground level.
What was the symbolic intent behind the placement of the entrances to Sainte-Chappelle chapel?

the Decameron
Which of the following provides a startling description of Florence during an outbreak of the plague?

flying buttress
In a Gothic church, which of the following was traditionally built against an exterior wall to provide support and brace it against strong winds?

Who was sent to England to convert the pagan Anglo-Saxon?

Chretien de Troyes
Who composed Lancelot, which centered on the adventures of a knight King Arthur’s court?

“Reminder of Wisdom” provides an accurate translation of memento mort

These fully rounded figures show a significant advance in naturalism in sculpture over a short period of time
What is unique about the sculptural figures on Reims Cathedral?