Humans and the Environment

placer mining
miners sift through material in modern or ancient riverbed deposits. using running water to separate minerals of value.

washes large amounts of debris into streams making in uninhabitable for for fish and other life for miles downstream. erosion in riparian zone

Mountain top mining
whole mountain top is blasted off while waste is dumped into valleys.degrades or destroys immense areas of habitat and pollutants or clogs streams and rivers. erosion intensifies, causing more mudslides
Undersea Mining
vacume up sand and gravel with hydraulic dredgesreally hard to do so doesnt have much impact but would destroy benthic region
Mine restoration
not very effective because of acid drainage and soil erosion are severe and long lasting and do not regain natural biotic communities.
1872 Mining Law
encourages prospecting for minerals on federal land minerals extracted require no payment to the public
process ore to get metals out
make steel by adding carbon to iron by smeltingmost methods are water and engery intensive, emit air pollution soil and water can be polluted by the leftover ore which may have heavy metals and chemicals present
Fossil fuels
highly combustible substances formed from the remains of or organisms from past geological agesoil coal and natural gas
fossil fuels are produced
only in anaerobic conditions with little or no oxygen environments such as bottoms of lakes swamps and shallow streams.
coal:hard blackish substance from organic matter that teh was compressed under high pressure most fossil fuel from 300-400 million years ago when the world was mostly swamps
peat:organic material that is near the surface still and wet.mined:strip mining and subsurface miningprovides:over half electricity for us and china
Natural Gasbiogenic gas:created at shallow depths by bacteriathermogennic:from compression and heat deep in the earth
cleaner then coal, mostly thermo is what we use, found along with oil and coal deposits.gets harder over time, mostly used up easy fields now frackign is how its done
crude oil: drill to extract it
40 more yearspeak oil and then the decline
oil sands or tar sands
has 1-20% oilstrip mined
oil shale
sedimentary rock w kerogen strip mined and subsurface mined.

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40% global reserves is in US

methane hydrates
seafloor sediment icelike solids that has methane imbeded in water molecules
impacts of fossil fuel use
pollute air and drive climate changecontaminate groundwater and alters environmentsdependance on foreign oil
Nuclear energy
energy that holds together protons and neutrons with the nucleus of and atom.
nuclear fission
reaction that drives the realease of nuclear energy by splitting apart of atomic nucleiwas we harness nuclear energy and turn it into thermal energy which we use to produce electricity
benifits
no greenhouse gasesless air pollution then fossil fuelsless ecosystem disturbance from miningless accidnets from mining
drawbacks
radioactive emissions and wastemeltdowns are catisrophic
top producers of oil
Saudi ArabiaRussiaUSiranChina
natural gas producers and consumers
coal producers adn consumers
nevada energy
powerplants:Valmy, Tracy and fort churchill produce 43% of NV energyrest is imported
Biomass energy 
converting biomass to biomass energyexamples are wood from tree cow poopTwo liquid kindsethanal:for gas enginesBiodiesal:deisal enginescofireing:add biomass to coal burnign plants
hydroelectric power 
use of kinetic energy of movign water to turn turbines and generate electricitydams: resevoir water stored and turns turnbines
Solar energy
passive: capture of sunlight to heat somethingactive:technological devices focus move or store solar energyphotovoltaic:electrons move from phosphorus side of silcon plate to boron side. creatign an electric currentgood because it is renewablebad because not everywhere is sunny and its expensive to startup
Wind energy
wind turbines harness wind kenitic energypros:renewable no emissions local low costcons:wind varies, far from pops means power lines, ugly, blades chop up critters, high start up cost
geothermal
readioactive decay of elements deep in earth core creates heat that rises toward the surface.very localised.
Ocean energy sources
kinetic engergy from motion of ocean water to generate electrical power.thermal energy from warm ocean water
Ocean energy sources
kinetic engergy from motion of ocean water to generate electrical power.thermal energy from warm ocean water