Where: Amazon, Congo, SE AsiaWhy: Orographic Precipitation & ITCZSpecies Richness: 1 hectare= 300 species of trees, SPECIES PACKING- almost every tree is super rare everywhere; Tall(60m), multi-layered canopy, poor soil.
Cloud forests- Where, why, species richness
i. Where: anywhere in tropics where there are mountains; Andes, central America, Borneo, New Guinea.ii. Why: Orographic Precipitationiii. Species richness: 200/hectar(trees), highest diversity of epiphytes iv. Structure: sloped, lots of gaps, very dynamic w/ landslides, storms.
Tropical dry forests- Where, why, species richness
i. Where: Subtropics, dry seasonii. Why: ITCZ dry season, rain shadowiii. Species richness: 75 species/hectar(trees)iv. Structure: 30 meters, short canopy, deciduous leavesv.
Disturbance: human development
What are epiphytes?
-is a plant that grows upon another plant (such as a tree) non-parasitically
What are bromeliads?
-type of epiphyte-Pineapple!-OVER 3000 SPECIES IN tropical america
-fig family-Alternate, Latex, Conical terminal stipule-Ecology: hemi-epiphyte or Sprangler, flower is inside out.
Silk Flock tree family-Columnar trunk & spreading crown, palmate leaves, spines on trunk, large showy flowers
Pea/Legume family-Pinante leaves- groups based on Flower; Acacia= puff ball, Bauhinia= open flower, Erythrina= pea like flower
PALM TREES- error if you can’t remember it
-Tropical snap dragons!-Opposite compound leaves, tubular flower-Big nose Jacaranda!
-Eucalyptus-Opposite, entire simple leaves, punctuation unique to metrosideros or ohia tree-Easy to family hard to genus
-Coffee-Simple entire opposite, stipules, small leafy outgrowth at base of lead or stalk, usually occurring in pairs- Most common tree and shrub species on campus are Gardenia and Coffee-found in cloud forests in central/south america.
-350 millions years old-1st amphibians 300 million years old-dominated 100 milion years-amphibians breath through skin, where we get our lips-AMPLEXUS- male fertilizes eggs that come out of female-Need water-Genus Identified by finger digit or jawbone, or sounds.-VISUAL ENCOUNTER METHOD: Set up 20m plot and go out day/night and survey all amphibians seen.
What is the class of amphibians, how many species, what are the threats to species?
-Class: Amphia-4200 species of amphians, most in tropics- columbia, brazil, mexico-Threats: habitat destruction(water quality), increase in UV light, fungus(30% of all amphibians effected by CHYTRIDIUMYCOSIS)**1/3 of the 266 turtle species are threatened.**
Families of amphibians: Tree frog, Poison dart frog, toads, glass frog, afro-asiatic
Tree frog= HylidaePoison arrow dart frog= DendrobatesToads- Cane toads brought 100 to Australia to eat beetles, in 6 months there was 6000(1 toad=20,000 eggs), poisonous, kills house pets-Glass frog= see through-Afro-asian= Can fly with webbed digits
Define Reptiles/difference from amphibians & how many?: Interesting facts on Turtles, Gecko, Basilisk
-Dry skin overed w/ scales; 8224 speciesc. Evolved over amphibians and dominated due to:i. Water-resistant skinii.
Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team
Better lungs- don’t breath through skin like amphibiansiii. Cold-blooded- based on environmental temperature.iv. Amniotic egg- ideal for living in warmer/drier environment-Turtles= oldest reptiles, Turtle=small/Tortoise= Large; 1/3 endangered due to mostly to pet trade, and medicine/food; Bottom of turtle shell called PLASTRON.
-Geckos 1st thing you see in tropics-Basilisk- CAN WALK ON WATER! upto 20 meters.
What family of snakes is most found in CA?what are some old world/new world species of snake that are similar?-How to tell a coral snake?
-Coluridae= 1800 species, if you see a snake in CA probably from this family.-Coral snake= red on yellow kills a fellow; red on black from of jack!-Constrictors: Boa(new world)/ Pythons(old world)
Order/History of alligators
Order= Crocodilia- 23 speices-Crocs have small snouts, alligators have large-Alligators: b. Alligators: very common in the South, have calls, temperature of egg determines sex(temp-90-93= male; 82-89=female), alligators bury eggs in holes, top of hole is male, bottom is female.
Facts on chameleons
Old World, change color, ultimate eye for cheating(look in all directions), tounge is longer than bodyMADAGASCAR has most endemism
Facts on Borneo
Lots of flying reptiles: frog, snake, Komoto Dragon- during ice age monitor lizards made it to isolated islands and grew HUGE to fill niche of tiger
What is complete inventory and Visual/Audio Transects?
-Ways to study herptofauna-CI= day/night climb trees and indentify everything-V= create trail or path through park and identify visually during day, record sounds at night.
What is the study of birds called, what is the oldest birds, difference from reptiles? and how do they reproduce?
-ORNITHOLOGY= study of birds-Oldest birds= 130 million years, Archaeopteryx-3. Differences from reptiles- Warm-blooded, similar- legs/talons look like reptile scales, and have air in bones.-4. Reproduction: Cloaca(opening in bird that looks kind of like vagina and both male/female have it), they do “Cloaca kiss” by bumping the Cloacas into each other putting sperm into vagina.
What are the different guilds of birds? and what are some new world and old world species?
How many species of birds are there? What continent has the most? What 2 groups of birds are there?
-10,000 species; South america has most.-2 groups- Passerines(Younger, perching feet) & Non-passerines(older- not perching birds)
What is interesting about bird books?
-Books are in evolutionary order!
ID for birds: Ratites, Hawks/vultures, Pigeons, Parrots, Hummingbirds,flycatchers
-Ratites- old school, w/o feathers almost look like dinosaur, most are flightless; i. S. America: Guan, Curascow, Tinamous, Chachalacas; Africa: Ostrich; Australia: Emu(Dry), Cassowaries (wet).
-Hawks & Vultures: Order Falconiformos, really good indicator of ecosystem health. Vultures are carrion eaters- use smell; Hawks use eyes, oval binocular vision, Owls hear, ears slightly offset. BIGGEST HAWK- Harpy Eagle, eats monkeys, -Pigeons: doves: Columbriforms, 300 species, good at flying, can fly straight, FRUGIVORES- normally found in tropics, DODO!-Parrots: 330 species, frugivores- but bad seed dispersers because they break up seeds w/ beak; 7 SPECIES IN LA! Most common is Green Chevron and Amazona(pasadena); Endangered due to pet trade!-Hummingbirds: Only in new world, 300+ species/very diverse, 60 heart beats/second, TORPOR is when they rest, very territorial, beaks have huge diversity, nests made from saliva.-Fly catchers: new world, largest family in world, LBB= Little black bird! perch on territory and catch prey then return to perch.
ecology of birds: species richness, island biogeography, vegetation structure
-Rainforest high in species richness due to diverse structure and niches, cloud= medium, dry= very low-species area richness work with birds: Yes, if you increase area 10 fold you double # of species-Island Biogeography: 2 factors: area & isolation, can almost exactly predict # of birds on island.
Determining levels of diversity: Globally, continents, regionally, landscape & local
-Global: ESA-Continent: Island area & isolation-Regional: vegetation type, rainforest has most-Landscape: fragment size-Local: forest structure
What is a honey creeper?
-bird of hawaii, frugivore, finch caught in storm, stranded in hawaii.
3 types of studying birds
-Mist netting: raise net in morning, catch birds, done by time(1000 hrs of mist netting), advantages- there’s a standard, disadvantages- small area, birds all from understory.-Line transect: walk through area on 20 meter line back and forth, count birds, advantages- short time, whole forest patch good sample; Disadvantages- 75% only identifiable by sound.-Point count: use points 100m apart, survey 10 minutes each; Advantages- standard/repeatable, disadvantages- waste of time getting form pt to pt.
Things that mammals have in common
-Skin glands: sweating and teats-Hair-Large lungs/brains-From reptiles- Nails, similar brain-From Primates- Tailbone-From herbivores- appendix to process grass
Diversity of mammals
29 order, 5600 species-900 bats & 2000 rodents-Diversity higher in tropics-Gondwanda land separate but similar mammals- hedgehog/Opposum, Jaguar(new)/Leopard(old)
Filters for mammals
-Central america: -North to south only able to migrate- rabbits, squirrels, bears, otter pumas-S to N: porcupines, armadillos, opposums.
Facts/Importance of Bats
-Chiroptera family-SAME NICHE AS BIRDS-only 20 have died from bats since 1946 in US-IMPORTANT FOR: Pollination, pest control, fertilizer-Flying foxes: use eyesight instead of sound.
-Once common from arizona to chili-largest new world cat, our version of lion-1 of 6 cats in New world, all fill niches by size
Primates, 2 groups
-Old World Monkeys: Prosimians, Lemurs, Torises(Bush babies), Tarsiers, lemur, chimps, 65 million years old- very primitive, Walk sideways-New world: Tamarins & Marmisets, hang from tails.
What are mammals called that live in trees? on ground? How do you identify each?
-Australia-Singapore-India-Jamaica-Trinidad-Cameroon-Barbados-Ghana-Nigeria-Uganda-Papau New Guinea-Vanuatu-LOTS OF PLACES IN TROPICS SPEAK ENGLISH!
What is Lingua Franca? Why is it so simple? how to say plural? How many world?
-Universal language of Bahasa Indonesia-no pre/suffix, no past/future-For plural say it twice-3000 words
Rules for travel in tropics:
-Listen to people who have been-Don’t listen to parents-Check w/ state dept. if want to get scared-Avoid diarrhea w/ bottled water-Food: WELL DONE, only fruit you can peal-Disease: get shots at Ashe, for malaria- stay out of outbreak area, aovid sunrise/sunset, bring mosquito net, 100% DEET spray, take pills if must
Animal annoyances in tropics
-Leaches: don’t transfer disease, easy to pop off-Chiggers- Bugs in grasses where there’s cattle, don’t walk through pastures-Ticks-Rats-Dog Bites-Humans: always have a pen on you
Rule to avoid human annoyances in tropics
-Don’t bring anything you’re afraid to lose-Don’t bring fancy bag-Passport/plane ticket on yo at all times-sow $100 in pants-Never meet a friend at a bus station