IB 105 – Lecture 4

wilderness
areas with minimal human influence
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Naturalist Philosopher, 1800s
Henry David Thoreau
Naturalist Philospher, 1800s (Walden)
Gifford Pinchot
argued for forest protection “not because they are beautiful or because they shelter wild creatures of the wilderness, but only to provide homes and jobs for people”
John Muir
early environmental activist strenuously opposed Pinchot’s policies, early 1900s.

lobbied to make national park system

Aldo Leopold
wrote A Sand County Almanac, made him such a famous conservationist.
Rachel Carson
wrote Silent Spring that helped launch the environmental movement
history of environmentalism in US
mid 1800s – naturalist philosophers, Nature has intrinsic aesthetic and spiritual values

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Mid to late 1800s, early 1900s – Preservation of nature for future consumption

Mid to late 1800s, early 1900s – Preservation of nature for nature’s sake

By the mid 1900s, there was growing concern about health and ecological damage caused by pollution

1970s
Clean water act
Clean air act
Safe drinking water act
Endangered species act
Established EPA
Exxon Valdez oil spill
1980s, Hypodermic needles and other toxic waste washing up on beaches in NY and NJ
Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro
1992, Focus on Climate Change and Biological Diversity
Kyoto Protocol
1997, Nations pledged to reduce emissions
(US signed but did not ratify the protocol)