IB Enviromental Systems and Socities

Natural Capital
Goods or services that are not manufactured but have value to humans
Renewable resources
Living resources that can replace or restock themselves- they can grow.
Non-renewable resources
Resources that exist in finite amounts on Earth and are not renewed or replaced after they have been used or delpleted (minerals and fossil fuels)
Replenishable reources
Arguably middle grounds between renewable and non-renewable resources. These resources are replaceable, however they tend to be replaced over a time period that does not allow them to be viewed renewable. (Groundwater- can be used as a resource and depleted as it is used. Normally depletion rates are magnitudes larger than recharge rates; therefore the natural capital is depleted in the same was natural oil and gas are depleted (well run dry).
Sustainability
Living within the means of nature, on the “interest” or sustainable natural income generated by natural capital.
Dynamic nature of resource
Importance of a resource varies over time. A resource avaliable in the past may not be a resource in the future.
Resource Values
Economic- having marketable goods or services, e.g. timber and food

Ecological- providing life-support services, e.g. water storage and gas exchange by forests

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Scientific/technological- useful for applications, e.g. genetic, medicinal

Intrinsic- having cultural, esthetic, spiritual or philosophical

Reuse
the object is used more than once. Examples include resuse of soft drinks bottles (after cleaning) and secondhand cars.
Remanufacturing
The object’s material is used to make a new object of the same type. An example is the manufacturing of new plastic bottles from used ones
Recycling
the object;s material is used again to manufacture a new product. An example of this is the use of plastic bags to make plastic poles for gardens.
Absolute reductions
Simply, using fewer resources, e.g. use less energy or less paper
Ecological footprint
Area of land (and water) that would be required to sustainably provide all of a particular population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes (rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support)
Human carrying capacity
Maximum load (rate of resource harvesting and waste generation) that can be sustained indefinitly without reducing productivity and functioning of ecosystems wherever those ecosystems are.
Natural Income
The product of natural capital.
(Just as capital yields income in terms of economics)