In slavery. When new states joined the Union,

In 1861, the Civil War
commenced as a result of the conflicting views between the North and South. The
South fought for unethical reasons, such as keeping slaves for intensive labor
and they wanted to have more state and individual rights that had higher
jurisdiction over the federal government; the North wanted to preserve the
Union in its entirety and to end slavery. When Robert E. Lee surrendered in
1865, not only did it end the Civil War, it kept the Union intact and assisted
in the abolishment of slavery. The Civil War is one of the most important wars
throughout American history. There were various events that provoked the start
of the war, however, specific compromises deferred the war until a later date. In
terms of seeking to find the solution to the problematic The Missouri
Compromise was the first endeavor to end the problematic issue of slavery. When
new states joined the Union, there was a conflict on deciding whether the new
states should be slave or free states. When Missouri desired to join the Union
as a slave state, the conflict became more contentious. The Missouri Compromise
adjusted the amount of free states and slave states. For numerous years, the
compromise appeared to keep the slavery issue from arising, although that
wouldn’t last forever and the slavery crisis would grow over a couple of
decades. The Compromise of 1850 kept the Union from separating and postponed
the Civil War for about ten years. The United States achieved large amounts of
territory in the West after fighting in the Mexican War. The controversial
issue of slavery became prominent during this time; the big decision was whether
slavery should be prevalent in the new territories. The Compromise had five
crucial rules, or provisions. Some parts of it, including the Fugitive Slave
Act, raised the agitation between the North and the South. These five major
components consisted of; California being a free state, Utah and New Mexico
were given the choice to legalize slavery, the border between New Mexico and
Texas was resolved, a tougher fugitive slave law was passed, (the Fugitive
Slave Act allowed Northerners to capture and return runaway slaves back to the
South.) The last of the five major components made slavery legal in D.C., but
the slave trade was banned. The compromise stopped the growth of slavery across
territories; it did keep the Union intact, but it was a momentary resolution to
all of the conflicts. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was one of the last attempts to
lower the tensions between the North and South before the Civil War actually
began. The Kansas-Nebraska Act authorized civilians in Kansas and Nebraska to determine
whether to permit slavery. This act called for “popular sovereignty” which was
the concept that citizens of new territories could vote on the subject of
slavery, which added on to the whole controversy. People on both sides of the
matter went to Kansas and violent acts and outbreaks of fighting erupted and the
territory became known as Bleeding Kansas. Abraham Lincoln was offended and
upset at Stephen Douglas for passing the Kansas-Nebraska Act that he started to
speak out against him, and soon they had debates and discussions in public
which denounced each other’s beliefs in politics, mostly towards the
Kansas-Nebraska Act. This act had set the country on the road to the Civil War,
even though not many saw it coming.

 

Throughout the Civil War,
soldiers spent very little time in battle and most of it at camps; which
consisted of little to nothing to do. For entertainment, soldiers depended on
game cards and reading and writing letters for entertainment. In the camps, there
was inadequate shelter, unhealthy food, which caused diseases and illnesses to
spread across the camps rapidly. The Union army ate a small range of meals
which consisted of hardtack, raw pork, and coffee. Fruits and vegetables were
not prevalent in soldier’s diets, which caused a weakness in immune systems,
and vitamin deficiencies. Soldiers began to eat dried vegetables, such as
tomato skins, and carrots. The vegetables were dried and then flattened into a
thin sheet and boiled. Fruits and vegetables
were major components in Confederate soldiers’ diets, and it consisted up
potatoes, lambs quarter, and thistle. The Soldiers on both the North and
South had unhealthy camps, which assisted in the outbreaks of body lice in many
soldiers’ clothing. Soldiers lived outdoors in tents and in unclean conditions
which caused not only body lice, but other illnesses to spread as well.

            Various
kinds of weapons and artillery were used during the Civil War; cannons played a
main role in the war as they could produce major blows and impacts that could
slow down the enemy. In order to maneuver and work a cannon during the war,
multiple men were needed; some were needed to sponge the barrel in order to
avoid unintentional explosions, and to carry cannon balls and ammo from behind,
and a couple of men to push the powder and projectile to the back of the
cannon. The Union had a major advantage in artillery due to the fact that the
North had many factories, which they produced weaponry and other items as their
economy was based on infrastructure. Torpedoes were used during the war, these explosive
shells are supposed to look like lumps of coal. The inside of the torpedoes
were hollowed out and were full of gunpowder, and then closed with wax, and
covered in soot to make it unidentifiable. Confederate soldiers dropped the
torpedoes into coal stashes, where they predicted it would be delivered into
the Union warships, which could damage the ship after an explosion.

            Numerous
engineering techniques took place throughout the Civil War; bridges that were
held up by floats to sustain walking or vehicular travel are called pontoon
bridges, or floating bridges. Bridges were a main component during the Civil
War because it helped aid the transportation of goods and weaponry to camps for
the soldiers. Another engineering and battle technique was used was by Union
forces. The Union army was restricted from going up James River, and
surrounding Richmond by the confederates. The confederate’s defense was strong,
and the Union army struggled to overcome it, so the Union General decided to
dig a channel to dodge the defenses that the Confederate’s had set up. The
Dutch Gap was selected as the location to dig. The mud in the Dutch Gap was
tough to dig as it was mainly stiff and almost impossible to get through, so
the Union efforts were unsuccessful. After the last wall of dirt and mud came
down, the Union soldiers couldn’t travel across the channel because it was too
shallow. Instead of going through the Dutch Gap Canal, Union ships went through
deserted Confederate defenses. The Trestle Bridge in Whiteside, Tennessee was a
780 foot long railroad bridge that was ruined by confederate troops during the
Civil War, and then rebuilt by the Union army. In the year of 1867 it was
destroyed, but this time it was because of a flood.

            Throughout
the Civil War there weren’t many ways to successfully treat gunshot wounds and
other injuries. Gunshot wounds were often fatal during the war as they had to
be transported and carried to the hospital over the course of miles, which
leads to blood loss since they’re not treated as quickly. A wounded patient that
is resting on a pillow stuffed with cut straw, and that has a well applied
bandage, was a helpful method in order to treat injured soldiers. Disease
spread quickly during the war due to the fact that the hospitals and treatment
shelters were unsanitary. Men fighting in the war were already fragile and weak
from combat, and their inadequate diet added onto that as well. Diseases like
measles, pneumonia, and typhoid fever were prevalent among the soldiers from
both the North and South. Doctors used the method of bloodletting to cure
illness, which consisted of withdrawing blood from the patient to treat their
sickness. Some of these treatments were actually worse than the disease or
illness itself. Over time, as more soldiers began to get sick and wounded,
there was a technological advance in medicine, which allowed for helpful treatments
for the patients. When a soldier became injured, they wrapped a bandage around
the wound, and gave him whiskey in order to comfort them; if the soldiers were
seriously injured, doctors would put them on stretchers to get them to the
nearest hospital.

            In order to boost the morale among
the soldier’s they had refreshment saloons. Refreshment Saloons had a purpose
to assist soldiers going through the city, by providing them with certain
things that they needed. Inside of the saloons the soldiers were given food, drinks
and places to sleep, some saloons also provided hospital care; it was a place
for soldiers to rest, and relax while they were in town and before they went
off into their next battle. Religion during the war also boosted soldier’s
morale; some soldiers went to mass as it provided comfort to the distressed and
anxious soldiers. Praying and reading The Bible permitted the soldiers to have
faith for what they fighting for; it also helped determinate them, as they
would have a cause to battle for.

            As both the North and the South
clashed together, it had eventually formed a naval war, which hurt the South,
due to the fact that they had less supplies to utilize. The Confederates only
had a small number of shipyards, a tiny merchant marine and they had no navy.
The Confederates were in need of a navy as it would destroy the Northern
blockade, and it could defend their own. The Union’s naval goal was to have a sufficient
amount of boats to surround every Confederate port. Creating and building ships
became a part of Northern soldier’s tasks; these ships consisted of warships
and blockaders. Ports in North Carolina and South Carolina became targets for
the Union Navy; and they were weakly protected so they were captured and then
they were used as bases for the Union army. Over the course of many years, this
became a Union tactic, and it hurt the Confederate trade. Soon after, the
Confederates started to fight back, they fought with new technology which
included ironclad ships. Older ships that were used by the Union were created
out of wood, but the new ironclad ship was a warship that was covered in metal
armor plates