In this Book, the author talks about manufacturing technologies and production systems which lead Toyota automobile company success. The inventor of Toyota production system Taiichi Ohno gives us extraordinary knowledge about lean management by eliminating waste and what makes them to create TPS. The book explains about concept of lean manufacturing, benefits of lean and various challenges faced by company while applying new methods. Then, step-by-step process behind the development of Toyota Automobile company to catch up American industry in terms of efficiency and profits. His thinking changes the manufacturing industry forever.
The internal concepts behind TPS are discussed in further.1.1 The two Pillars of SystemThe two main pillars of TPS are Just-in-time and Autonomation with human touch. Just-in-time is the concept to maintain zero inventory by receiving the exact part and exact quantity need in assembly line by the help of sign boards. He applied just-in-time idea from American supermarkets.
Change in assembly line by sorting them by type of cars, quantity and due date. The new methods gave them lot of defects and countless problems where the traditional management don’t work well. This failure is rectified by connecting Just-in-time with Kanban. The other pillar is Autonomation with human touch, the idea is originated from the waving machines by founder Toyoda Sakichi (Termed as ‘Baka-yoke’).
For all the machines in Plant are attached with safety and automatic controls which reduces the number of operators, which have seen increase in product efficiency. The relation between Just-in-time and Autonomation is compared with sports team, where autonomation is the players skills and talent and other is the team work (‘skills with teamwork’).1.2 Production LevellingThe idea of production levelling is to decrease the batch size and minimize single production. Most of the parts for industry comes from outside of the firms and after collecting all the parts the production will start at end. The production should be planned one after other throughout the week.
To avoid this delay, the concept of production levelling is established by way of production and constant supply of materials. Rearranging the machines results in reduced in waste and hike in productivity by at least twice. He came up with new idea from waving workers operating many machines at a time, to establish this idea in production plant by changing position of machines.
1.3 Evolution of Toyota ProductionWhen a problem occurred in the plant, the people focus on action taken, which results reoccurring of same problem. The authors thinking is different from the conventional way, is to identify root cause by repeating why five times. Here, there are two main points to be focused when someone thinking about complete elimination of waste. First, reduction in cost per the product (achieved by producing products with less labor costs) and second, the efficiency of any company is taken by considering efficiency of the individual operator and taken operators in to group. So, that efficiency can be improved in each level at same time. The Frist principle is to write the standard worksheet with symbols for yourself which can easily understood by all.
Kanban ‘The operating system of the company which is a piece of paper having information, from book ‘it consists of three section delivery, transfer and production details’. The worksheet is sent to work station when needed is applying Kanban to just-in-time.1.4 Waste EliminationThe main aim of lean manufacturing is elimination of waste, over production is an important waste of manufacturing. ‘Cost reduction is a Goal’ creativity and effectiveness to use facilities and machines well, and to eliminate all the waste.
The real efficiency is considered as the 100-percentage work with zero waste. To overcome excess production waste is controlled by analyzing what is needed, when needed and amount required.1.
5 TPS Vs Mass Production SystemThe Henry Ford’s mass production system created the automobile industry. The production is usually very large when compared to TPS. There is no production levelling and the efficiency is determined from quantity and speed of the production. Automobile market is a diversified market.
As fluctuations occurs in market, as response to the market it’s very difficult to change schedule in mass production system. The main system of the ford system is to bulk manufacturing and big inventory size.1.6 Low GrowthJapan’s economy is stabilized, improvements in advanced machineries which could take less time and gives high productivity. In high growth time the productivity can be easily increased, how to balance the productivity in low growth period. In low growth period, to fix this maintaining low operators for automated machines.
Automated machines played key role in low growth period.1.7 Lessons LearnedFrom, Taiichi Ohno’s Toyota Production System book given knowledge about how Toyota automotive company did efforts to meet American automobile industry. It has given knowledge about elimination of waste, identification and complete analysis of waste. I learnt the difference between Toyota production system and Ford’s mass production system. And also helps to understand new concepts such as Just-in-time, Autonomation and Kanban.
1.8 My OpinionEvery automotive company has their own plant layout and their own strategies, Ford follows mass production system where they have huge market at that time. Mass production system is great idea for the companies who has high sales. In early 1950’s Toyota is a growing company with limited orders, where Toyota production system has best suited them. TPS is good choice for small and medium manufacturing companies