Informed study. In research study, informed consent is

Informed consent is a legal document required for a certain procedure or treatment in hospital. It also bring a definition as a voluntary agreement made by a well-advice and mentally competent patient to be treated or randomized into a research study. Informed consent carry a specific purpose according to the field that it been used whether in medical field, or when conduct a research study. In research study, informed consent is an important especially when involving a human subject. There is an act that have been carried from the past that must not be violence by the researcher. However, when human subject was involved, there will usually have some ethical implication.  Several issues with informed consent when human subject was involved had been recognizes. It based on these three basic principles for protection in human rights. First is autonomy. Autonomy is the ability to make your own decisions about what to do rather than being influenced by someone else or told what to do. In this case, it is applied to all participant that they must be given the respect from the researcher. They also must be given the suitable time especially when making a decision. The researcher must be explain detail regarding information of the study in order for participant to decide the need to do or not doing the study. All decision making must be free from any persuasion, threatening and pressure to participate.  Second is beneficence. It bring the meaning of the fact or quality of being kind or doing good. In ethical issues for protecting human right, beneficence is important in applying at all participant. The researcher must be maximized the benefits to participant and minimized the possible harmful effects of participant. Some of the potential risk are include psychological or physical harm, loss of confidentiality of participants, and also financial cost. All of the possibility harm that might occur in the study must be explain clearly to the participant prior to sign the consent.  Justice is the last basic principle in order to protecting the human right. Justice is fairness in the way that people are treated. The researcher must be fair in selecting the participant and in the process of recruiting the participant to participate the study. There must also fair in distribution of benefits of participation in research. The researcher must be sure there is no exploitation of participant in the conduct of research.     In doing research, there are five main ethical pillars that must be followed by researcher. First, minimize the risk of harm to participants. This principle stress on how a research should not harm participants by considering all aspects that could bring harm such as physical harm, psychological distress and discomfort, social disadvantage, financial status or an invasion of participant’s privacy and anonymity. Non-maleficence requires a high level of sensitivity from the researcher about what constitutes “harm” (Ford L., 2009). Discomfort and harm can be physiological, emotional, social and economic in nature (Burns N., 2005). By acknowledging these risk aspects, interventions to avoid or minimizing the risk of harm could be taken by researcher. Second, attain informed consent from participants. The idea of informed consent is one of the foundations of research. Informed consent means the knowing consent of a person without undue inducement or any element of force, extortion, duress or any other form of constraint or coercion. It is the researcher’s responsibility to provide sufficient information in comprehensible and simple language on the benefits and possible risks ahead of the participant’s involvement in the research, so that participant can make a well-informed judgement about participation. Informed consent is not just a form, but a process, when it was done appropriately, the process assures that participants are willingly participating in the research with full knowledge and information of relevant risks and benefits. In some cases, that involve people with low autonomy such as young children, very ill people or mentally disables, they could only be included in research under specific circumstances, as they not able to make fully informed decisions on their own. They should always be protected.  The third component of research ethics is by ensuring the anonymity and individuality of research participants. Protecting anonymity of information from participants means that either the researcher does not collect personal information of participants such as name, address, email, job, year of services or the researcher does not link individual responses with participants’ identities. Unless it is necessarily essential to the aimed protocol, participant’s personal details should be keep ‘anonymous’ to protect the participant confidentiality. Nonetheless, permission should be obtained before any confidential information is used. Forth principle of research ethics is to reject any kinds of deceptive practices. Deceptive may not be seen as an issue if an informed consent has been performed, however the question is, how can the participants know what the research requires of them if they are being deceived? this question makes the use of deceptive practices in doubt. Therefore, dissertation research should avert any types of deceptive practices. However, deception is sometimes being allowed in covert research where the identity of the observer and the purpose of the research is not known to participants. This is most likely to be the case where a research needs an observation rather than through direct contact with participants, for example; observing what type of customers who like giving tips in the tip jar.Lastly, allowing the participants to withdraw is one of the principles of research ethics that should be followed by researcher. Participants should have the right to withdraw from the research process at any stage and when the decision to withdraw was made, the participant should not be pressured or coerced in any way in order to stop them from withdrawing. According to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines, an individual can withdraw from research at any time without revealing the reason of discontinuation. These basic principles of research ethics should be taken into account when performing a research as it can help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public, in terms of human right, social responsibility and public health and safety. Researchers should be reminded that any ethical lapses in research can significantly harm the subjects and result to a low-quality research study.