INTRODUCTION:Poverty is well-known in India, with the nation estimated to have a third of the world’s poor.
Major determinants of poverty are lack of income and purchasing power attributable to lack of productive employment and considerable underemployment, inadequacy of infrastructure, affecting the quality of life and employability etc. NGOs have a important role in assisting poor to break out of the vicious circle of poverty. Most NGOs consider empowerment of the poor as their major goal and objective. The empowerment can be as basic as enabling groups to improve their conditions through socio-economic development programs or projects. “Empowerment is the ownership of the development process by the people themselves. All development stakeholders – government, private sector, banks, NGOs and other members of civil society – must recognize the capacity of the poor to develop themselves as free, responsible and self-reliant groups and communities and create the environment for individuals to come together and organize themselves.
(IFAD/NGO, 2000) Concept of PovertyPoverty in India is a complex socio-economic ‘phenomenon. It is neither a new nor it suddenly appeared,, but there has been much awareness of the Problem within and outside the country (Ahluwalia, 1974).According to Lewis, “we come closer to describing what poverty is when we define it as the inability to satisfy one’s material wants or needs.”With about 19% of the state’s population below the defined poverty line. Poverty is generally of two types Absolute poverty is synonymous with destitution and occurs when people cannot obtained quite resources (measured in terms of calories or nutrition) to support a minimum level of physical health. And it is refers to the deprivation of basic human needs. Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people live.
Relative poverty occurs everywhere, is said to be increasing, and may never be eradicated The world bank organization describes poverty in this way: Poverty has many faces, changing from place to place and across time, and has been described in many ways. Most often, poverty is a situation people want to escape. So poverty is a call to action- for the poor and the wealth alike- a call to change the world so that many more may have enough to eat, adequate shelter, access to education and health, protection from violence, and a voice in happen in their communities. Poverty in India Poverty is a significant issue in India, despite having one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, clocked at a growth rate of 7.6% in 2015, and a sizable consumer economy. The World Bank reviewed and proposed revisions in May 2014, to its poverty calculation methodology and purchasing power parity basis for measuring poverty worldwide, including India. According to this revised methodology, the world had 872.
3 million people below the new poverty line, of which 179.6 million people lived in India. In other words, India with 17.5% of total world’s population had 20.
6% share of world’s poorest in 2011 (Kharas & Chandy, 16 August 2017.)Since the 1950s, the Indian government and non-governmental organizations have initiated several programs to alleviate poverty, including Subsidizing food and other necessities, increased access to loans, improving agricultural techniques and price supports, promoting education and family planning. These measures have helped eliminate famines, cut absolute poverty levels by more than half, and reduced illiteracy and malnutrition. Although the Indian economy has grown steadily over the last two decades, its growth has been uneven when comparing social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and urban areas. Poverty has been a firm and importunate problem in India, all the way through the independence to decades after that. Role of NGO, especially in a country like India, is very crucial. In fact, according to current statistics, a huge chunk of the Indian population is still below the poverty level. Not to mention, the focus of elections and all other political agendas have been around the concern.
Various government subsidies and poverty amelioration mechanisms have been incorporated in the country. However, most of them failed to offer a commendable result. Throughout the last few decades, role of NGO’s is extremely significant in poverty amelioration mechanism. They have brought about some of the best employment opportunities, livelihood programs, self help groups and also empowerment programs. (Bank, 16 August 2017)Role of NGO in poverty alleviationNGO’s play a important role in contribution relief and other basic amenities to individuals who are pain from extreme poverty.
Non-governmental organizations have initiated some empowerment programs. These programs empower both men and women, thereby offering some admirable benefits in their lifestyle. NGO’s have brought about some possible and successful, skill based livelihood programs. Various public services are provided by the NGO’s both at Macro and Micro levels. NGO’s have also implemented some viable development programs which are extremely handy for the poverty stricken individuals.
Objectives of the Study· To know intensity of poverty in India · To analyze The NGOs models and their impact of poverty alleviation in India Materials and methodsThe present study is based upon secondary data. For the study researcher has collected data from RUDSET and BAIF websites and analyzed the present intensity of poverty various NGOs interventions through models to alleviate poverty in Karnataka. In addition to that Researcher has procured data from census of India.RUDSET ModelUnemployment is the one major cause for the poverty of Indian citizens, unlike other developing countries unemployment is the prime challenge India is facing in the process of its development. Given the development in the educational and skill development lakh of youth with relatively employable skills are entering the job market every year after completing their school/collegiate education. The country and the economic development of the country is still not able to provide the value based well suitable employment to each and every citizen accordance to his skill and qualification. The need for increasing the self-employment opportunity for these educated and oriented towards the white collar job youths.
One of such innovative experiment is that Rural Development & Self Employment Training Institute (RUDSETI) a unique initiative in mitigating the problem of unemployment was taken a way back in 1982. RUDSETI has shown remarkable progress in wellbeing of the people. (Twikirize, 2013)Rural Development & Self Employment Training Institute (RUDSETI) a unique initiative in mitigating the problem of unemployment was taken a way back in 1982 jointly by sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Educational trust, Syndicate bank and Canara bank under the visionary leadership of Dr.D Veerendra heggade, Dharmadhikari of Dharmasthala. the collective thinking gave concrete shape in providing an institutional framework in the form of rural development & self employment training institute in 1982.
EligibilityAny unemployed youth in the age group of 18-45 years, irrespective of caste, creed, religion, gender and economic status, having aptitude to take up self employment or wage employment and having some basic knowledge in the related field can undergo training which is totally free. Interested candidates may apply to the nearby institute as per the application format given below and addresses of the Institutes are also available on this website.Various training Programs`RUDSETI offers more than 60 types of Entrepreneurship Development Programs in various avenues. All the programs are of short duration intervention ranging from one to six weeks. Mainly Entrepreneurship Development Programs (EDP) for First Generation Entrepreneurs are classified in to four categories as shown :Agricultural EDPs- such as Comprehensive Agriculture & Allied Activities, Comprehensive Horticulture, Sericulture ,Dairy Farming, Poultry, Piggery, Mushroom Cultivation, Sheep Rearing, Cultivation of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Bee Keeping, Dairying & Vermi composting, Advanced Dairy Management, Plant Nursery Managemen etc. Product EDPs- Gems & Artificial Jewellery, Handicrafts Manufacturing, Hand Embroidery, Dress Designing for Men, Dress Designing for Women, Jardosi and Maggam Work, Stained Glass Etching & Painting, Lambani Kasuti & Karnataka Kasuti, Agarabathi Making, Soft Toys Making, Preparation of Domestic Products, Manufacture of Utility Items from Waste, Embroidery & Fabric Painting, Paper Cover, Bag, Envelop & File Making, Process EDPs-Electric Motor Rewinding & Pumpset Maintenance, Servicing of TV/DVD and other Digital Electronics, Tractor Servicing, Maintenance and Repairs,. Plumbing & Sanitary Works, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Course (RAC), Multi Phones Service Training Program me, Computer – Tally, Computer Basics, Computerized Financial Accounting (Wage Employment),Computer – Data Entry Operation (Wage Employment),Two Wheeler Servicing Beauty Parlor Management, Men’s Parlor Management, Basic Photography & Videographer, Inverter & UPS Manufacturing and Servicing, Domestic Electrical Appliance Repair, Sewing Machine Servicing & Repair, Light Motor Vehicle (LMV) Driving, Aluminum Fabrication etc.Programmes for the established entrepreneurs: Apart from organizing entrepreneurship development programme (EDP) for first generation entrepreneurs, institutes also organize skill-up gradation programmes & growth programmes for the established entrepreneurs, the details of which are as shown: Skill up gradation programmes & growth programme: advanced digital photography, digital film making, servicing of digital television & digital electronics, maintenance of domestic equipments, computerized sticker cutting, exclusive designer wear, export oriented Jewelery, original stain glass painting, laptop maintenance and servicing, advanced mobile servicing, advanced beauty parlor (RUDSETI, 2015)BAIF ModelThe BAIF is charitable organization based in Urali Kanchan near Pune in Maharashtra, India that pioneers agricultural development.
The Organization’s main activity early in its history was breeding of high yielding cows. This involved cross breeding European cattle varieties BAIF was a dream of Mahatma Gandhi realized by Dr. Manibhai Desai at Urulikanchan in 1967, to replicate his experiences in rural development. (Ramdas & Ghotge, 2006) Programs for poverty alleviation Livestock Development BAIF Introducing Artificial insemination, Coverage of cattle, buffaloes and goats, Support Activities: Minor veterinary care, forage production, feeding the impact is Milk yield, Increase in annual income: Rs. 7,000-8,000 ,Livelihood for women, Food and nutritional security, Employment generation.
Livestock Development is BAIF’s flagship programme reaching 3.0M familie. Poverty alleviation: Thousands of families helped out of poverty as a family with 3 crossbreds can earn an additional income of Rs. 20,000-24,000 /year (US $400-480).Coverage: 3.0 M families across 55,000 villages in 12 states; 0.
65 M crossbred cows producing milk worth US $500 M. Milk Yield: Average milk yield increased from 250 kg/ lactation to 1000 kg/ lactation of livestock in India. Genetic Improvement: Provided over 3 M doses of superior quality frozen semen to various State Animal Husbandry Departments for breed improvement Supplementary Non-farm Income ProgrammesTechnical training for Agri-business activities – mango pickles, cashew processing, Mushroom production Processing of medicinal herbs, Off-farm activities – flour mills, consumer stores.Impact is – Processed foods sold under Vrindavan brand name, Silk Mart shop at Urulkanchan selling silk garments produced by participants , Retail outlets of women groups selling food and herbal products, Women entrepreneurs, Environmental Sustainability: Biodiversity conservation – medicinal herbs,Financial Sustainability: Sustainable on its own as BAIF only conducts training related to new activities; services are a source of income generationWater Resources ManagementParticipation of entire community for building watersheds through water users’ groups, Gully plugging, contour bonding, fortified by vegetation for soil and water conservation, Network of farm ponds, Use of technology – Geo Information System and Remote Sensing. Impact-Assured water in 800 villages, benefiting 77,000 families,0.4M ha covered by 500 watersheds, Additional employment of 158,000 person days, 20-25% increase in cropping intensity and 30-40% increase in crop yields, Improvement in quality of life.
Environmental Sustainability: Soil conservation – Increase in soil fertility, Water conservation – Increase in ground water table, Improvement in micro-climate, Impact of Farm Pond Activity.Use of community wastelands for fodder Education, Health and Awareness, Poor access to health services, Malnutrition problems , Women literacy rate – 45% compared to 65% for total population, Lack of exposure to information and technology, Low self confidence.Capacity BuildingNo source of livelihood, Social position of women – traditionally do not have any decision making powers, Women bear burden of multiple responsibilities – managing household, children and even work as farm laborers without any recognition, Suffer from deprivation and neglect, Field visits for micro-credit and community development, Self Help Groups (SHGs) mobilize savings and credit and micro-enterprises, Leadership Development, Special programme for socially challenged women.
Impact-10,000 SHGs formed, 1,250 SHGs linked with banks ,115 types of different micro-enterprises promoted,Confidence building in rural women ,Developed ability to manage successful business ,Participation in village administration.BAIF is providing techno-managerial support to other organisations for wider replication,Livestock Development in practice ,Programme Impact,Sustainable Agriculture. (BAIF, 2017)ConclusionIn India NGOs are played an increasingly prominent role in the development sector as innovative and Grassroots Organizations with the desire and capacity to pursue participatory and people cent red forms of development and to fill gaps left by the failure of the government in meeting the needs of their poorest citizens. Poverty is widespread in India because the human resource facing lock of skills and competency so Its creates more unemployment problems and also decrees purchasing power of people. In indie RUDSETI and BAIF NGOs are engage the poor in capacity-building activities through skill development training and introducing of sustainable agriculture technology as a major component in their programs and projects. The researcher had shown the models of these NGOs in poverty alleviation in India.