# Kaplan Book: Chapters 5 & 6

 Uniform Distribution
 Individuals in a population are equally spaced apart. EX: Crops
 Clustered Distibution
 Individuals in a population gather in uneqally spaced groups. EX: Penguins
 Random Distribution
 Indiviuals in a population are spaced with no pattern. EX: Windblown seeds
 Direct Count Method
 Counting all the individuals in a population
 Constructing a grip of simple squares and counting indiviuals in a population within these squares.
 Capture-Recapture Method
 Over a period of time, periodically capture and count individuals in a population and than release them, marking the ones you capture first.
 Population Growth
 The rate at which a population grows. It follows a logistic growth because limiting factors prevent it from growing without end.
 Density Dependent Factors
 Limiting factors that become worse as the population grows.
 Density Independent Factors
 Limiting factors that are unaffeced by the population’s size.
 K
 An estimate of the carrying capacity of a population.
 r-strategists
 Species who have high birth rates, several offspring and short life spans.
 K-strategists
 Species who have low birth rates, few offsprings and long life spans.
 Type I survivors
 Species with long life spans, with the majority of the deaths occuring in the elderly. EX: Tigers
 Type II survivors
 Species that have a constant death rate across all ages. EX: Hawks
 Type III survivors
 Species that have high death rates among the young. EX: Butterflies
 ARPC
 The rate at which a population changes. Calculated by the equation: [birth rate – death rate]/10
 Zero Population Growth
 When the birth and death rates are equal, the population doesn’t grow at all.
 Negative Population Growth
 When the ARPC is negative,due to the death rate being higher than the birth rate, the population begins to decrease.
 Rule of 70
 The formula to determine doubling time. Calculated by the function: 70/ARPC
 Emigration
 Leaving a country. Lowers that countries population size.
 Immigration
 Moving to a country. Increases that countries population size.
 Industrialized countries
 Known as First World countries. EX: USA, Canada, Germany, Japan
 More Developep Countries (MDC)
 Known as the Second World countries. EX: China, Russia
 Less Developed Countries (LDC)
 Known as the Third World countries. EX: India, African countries
 Replacement-level Fertility
 The number of children a woman must bear to replace a set of parents. This can show how large a population is and how it is growing as a country with a higher rate would have a higher population size.
 Factors that affect birth and fertility rates
 Infant mortality, marriage age, education, affluence, child labor, opportunities for women, availabilityof birth control and religious/cultural beliefs
 Declining Death Rate Factors
 Nutrition, sanitation, water, hygeine, medicine and public health
 Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
 The number of babies out of every 1000 born each year. Tends to be higher in LDC’s than in a MDC or industrialized country.
 Pre-Industrial
 The first stage of the demographic transition model. Typically includes high birth and death rates and a low growth rate.
 Transitional
 The second stage of the demographic transition model. Typically includes high birth and growth rates and a low death rate.
 Industrial
 The third stage of the demographic transition model. The birth and growth rate begins to drop down.
 Post-Industrial
 The final stage of the demographic transition model. Birth rate continues to decline until it is below the death rate, leading to a decrease in the growth rate.
 Pronatalist policies
 Policies that encourage birth and large family sizes. EX: Romania
 Antinatalist Policies
 A policy that discourages births and encourages small families. EX: China
 Malnutrition
 Too little consumption of specific nutrients.
 Undernutrition
 Chronic consumption of too few calories per day
 Causes of Hunger
 Poverty, feeding domestic animals and the growing of cash crops.
 Sustainable agriculture
 Agriculture that attempts to reduce land disruption through not clearing the field entirely, making sure the land is not compltely bare and planting diverse crops.
 Green Revolution
 A attempt to increase food productivity and relieve hunger. One result was the devlopment of new varieties of wheat that were more resistant to pests and disease.
 Increase resistance to insects, alter oil content and control the pollon levels in crops.
 Seeds from the crops may disrupt the ecological balance and pests could develop immunity to the crops resistance.
 Deforestation
 The clearing of forests. Leads to more carbon dioxide in the air, disrupts the water cycle and decreases biodiversity.
 Pesticides
 Chemicals used to kill insects and other pests. Can lead to resistance in insects.
 Tree farms
 An area where only one type of tree is planted and cared for, reducing the need to cut down forests. However, it also reduces biodiversity since there is only one type of tree.
 Jack pine
 A tree which requires fire to germinate it’s seeds. As a result, it is a practice to purposely set fire to it.
 Limits on Timber Companies
 Ban timber cutting in national forests, eliminate new roads through national forests and not supplementing government budgets with timber sales.
 Rangeland
 An unmanaged area of land that supplies vegetaton for animals to eat. Contains mostly grass and shrubs, unlike a forest, which contains mainly trees.
 Continuous grazing
 Year long grazing in a particular area. It requires little fencing, but the grasses become used up faster.
 Deferred grazing
 Moving livestock between two grazing areas. It allows gras to recover from grazing, but is more costly than continuous grazing.
 Cheaper, faster and safer than deep mining
 Destroys natural habitats and the landscape
 Doesn’t destroy the landscape as much as surface mining and allows minerals to be taken out from deeper underground
 Dangerous to miners and is much more costly than surface mining
 Overburden
 The vegetation, soil and rocks lying over a mineral deposit.
 Tailings
 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
 Requires mining companies to replant vegetation on land that was strip-mined.