Land Exam Review

Core (Outer and Inner)
Made of?
Innermost zone of earth. There’s a solid core on the inside and a liquid core on the outer edge.
An iron/nickel mixture.
Mantle.
Made of? What’s upper surface like?
What’s the ASTHENOSPHERE?
The zone surrounding the core.
Made of mostly solid rock.
The upper surface is soft and partially melted (ATHSENOPHERE) Can be moved around.
Out layer is crispy again.
Crust. Made of?
Lithosphere.
Uppermost layer of earth. Made of rock: QUARTZ (sio2)
Lithosphere is the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
Convection Cells. Where do they come from? What does it cause?
Are heat currents in the ASTHENOSPHERE. The heat comes from core activities. The heat causes plates to move!
Divergent Plate Boundaries. What happens? Associated with?
MOVE APART FROM EACH OTHER. Magma comes up and fills in land. Associated with SEAFLOOR.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Divergent, in the ATLANTIC ocean. Part of the longest mountain range in the world.
Separates:
Eurasian Plate and North American Plate African Plate from the South American Plate.
Convergent Boundaries. Two types? What do they do? Create? Associated with?
Colliding together.
SUBDUCTION: Oceanic goes under land and melts, magma spews to surface.
TRENCHES (ocean plate down), MOUNTAIN CHAINS (plate collision) VOLCANOES (increased magma)
CONTINENTAL COLLISION: Two land colliding together, crunch together and form mountains.
Transform Boundaries. Causes? Effects? Examples?
Sliding by each other. Earthquakes come from catches and releases, not very strong. Example: San Andreas fault, California.
Earthquake Strength Rules… Compression? Rock squeezing and slipping? Deep earthquakes are from…?
Deep and Strong: COMPRESSION.
Rock stores energy when SQUEEZED. Stretched rock BREAKS, no potential energy.
Viscosity? What is it?
High in Silica = ?
Low = ?
It’s the thickness of magma, indicates how much silica there is.
High in silica means THICK
Low means RUNNY
Pyroclastic Flow?
Fast-moving current of superheated gas and rock. Super fast terrorist lava.
Lahar Flow?
mMdflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris, and water.
THE ~RING OF FIIIIRE~
is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. AROUND EDGES OF ALL THE CONTINENTS IN THE CENTER OF THE MAP.
KRAKATOA
Huge damn volcano. The Krakatoa volcanoes erupted and exploded in 1883. Loudest sound ever~
Tsunamis
Huge ass waves caused by displacement of land, usually by earthquakes!
Rocks are what?
Solid combos of one or more minerals (limestone is mineral with icon, granite is three combined: mica, feldspar, and quartz!)
Minerals are…?
A natural element or inorgranic compound, soldid and regular looking crystal structure.
ORE!?!? High and low grade.
Rock that has enough mineral to mine. High grade = high amounts of mineral. Low Grade = lower amts.
Igneous rock.
Rock from lava!
Sedimentary rock.
Rock from erosion particles, often in the water!
Metamorphic rock.
“change in form” rock, from heat and pressure.
Weathering.
NOT EROSION. breaking down of rocks, soils and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth’s atmosphere, biota and waters.