Language and sounds (syntactic structure). There are many

Language is a form of art. There are so many variations and intricacies available in language that can convey several different meanings, all of which come together to serve one main purpose i.e. to communicate. Communication is a vital element for the function of our society.

Within some fields of language analysis such as stylistics, rhetoric, and semantics, language is of two types: Literal and Figurative. In literal language words or phrases are being used in their literal or dictionary meaning whereas, Figurative language is simply defined as “saying one thing in terms of something else”, means whenever we say something, we don’t mean literally. It gives more detailed and accurate description of any situation. For instance, “it’s raining cats and dogs out side” this sentence does not mean that cats and dogs are falling from the sky, its’ literal meaning is “it’s raining hard outside”.

Traditionally, figurative language has been divided into figure of thought or tropes and figure of speech or rhetorical language. The word “Trope” has been originally taken from the Greek word ” ” means “turn”. Tropes changes the general meaning of words; whereas figure of speech deal with word order, syntax, letters and sounds (syntactic structure). There are many different types of figure of speech such as antithesis, apostrophe, chiasmus, zeugma and anaphora while tropes include irony, simile, metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche.

The word “metaphor” is derived from the ancient Greek word “metapherein”, which means “to carry over” or “to transfer”. A metaphor “carries” meaning from one concept to another by stating or implying that one is the same or like the other. For example,

“Life is a play that does not allow testing. So sing, cry, dance, laugh and live intensely, before the curtain closes and the piece ends with no applause” – Charlie Chaplin.

In everyday language metaphor is being used in many spheres such as political, business, education, media.  etc.  It is one of the most used stylistic devices in the language of politics. Its usage as a part of figurative language aims to help audience to visualize what is meant by a phrase or expression.

Political metaphor in Russian mass media: post perestroika, thematic classification   

Political metaphor in Hindi mass media: technological revolution, thematic classification

                                                                                                      

 

The history of metaphor can be traced back to the ancient time.  It is being widely accepted that Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384 BCE-322BCE) has done very first detailed research on “metaphor” in his famous work ‘poetics’. According to Aristotle, “metaphor consists in giving the thing a name that belongs to something else” (Aristotle). The concept of metaphor has undergone evolutionary changes. The classical philosopher Aristotle (4th BC) defines metaphor as a rhetoric device. In the traditional theory, metaphor is understood as the matter of language but not thought and is used for artistic or rhetorical purposes. Moreover, metaphor was considered as only a matter of poetic language but not as simple everyday expression.  In the course of time another – contemporary theory of metaphor emerged, which suggested completely different view of metaphor. Contemporary linguists such as Lakoff & Johnson (1980), David Punter (2007), Elena Semino (2008), Kovecses (2010) studied metaphor as a matter of thought and the tool of cognition.

 

With time the interest of linguists has been gradually increasing in studying metaphors and new terms such as, conceptual metaphor and conceptual metaphor theory has emerged. Conceptual metaphor theory is originated within the field of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics is a scientific discipline which has formed as a branch of cognitive psychology or philosophy, which deals with the conceptual system of human mind. Sometimes conceptual metaphor theory is also called as cognitive metaphor theory, because metaphor is also a mean of cognition. Conceptual metaphor theory was adopted by Lakoff and Johnson in the 1980’s book “Metaphor We Live by”. They pioneered the notion that metaphor underlies the conceptual system according to which we think and act. According to Kövecses “our conceptual system contains thousands of concrete and thousands of abstract concepts, further he says that in the cognitive linguistics view metaphors are sets of mappings between a more concrete or physical source domain and a more abstract target domain”. Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and Kövecses (2010) proposed the division of conceptual metaphor into three types: orientational, ontological and structural.

While considering the above brief introduction regarding metaphor, the main motto of this proposed research work is to study political metaphor of Russian and Hindi in contemporary mass media so it will be assessing metaphors on the basis of cognitive approach. Moreover, the work will also discuss the translatability of political metaphors from Russian into Hindi and vice versa. Additionally

 

 

Literature review

Traditionally, metaphors have been studied by scholars in the field of linguistics and literature studies, rhetoric and philosophy. Over the past three decades’ metaphor analysis has become increasingly popular and most notably in cognitive linguistics. Since 1970s the cognitive approach has widely spread and has been adopted by a variety of disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics etc. In the view of cognitive approach, it is argued that metaphor is pervasive in both thought and language.

 

Literature gap

Scope and Objective

Broad areas under which the research problem falls

 Hypothesis

Objectives of study

The Object of the work is political metaphors in Russian and Hindi mass media.

The aim of the proposed research work is comparative analysis of political metaphors in Russian and Hindi contemporary mass media. To accomplish this, the following research objectives will be following:

 

Research methodology

 

Tentative chapters

This research work will include an Introduction and four chapters followed by conclusion and references. Chapters will be following:

Chapter 1: Theoretical Framework

The First chapter will be dealing with the key concepts of metaphor, history of metaphor studies, classical and contemporary theories of metaphor and a brief study of cognitive linguistics, the main features of conceptual metaphor theory. the relation between source and target domain and Role of metaphors in political discourse.

Chapter 2: Political Metaphors in Russian Mass Media

Chapter 3: Political Metaphors in Hindi Mass Media

Chapter 4: Comparative Analysis of Russian and Hindi Political metaphor

In the practical part all the collected examples will be grouped according to the concept they correspond.

Conclusions will be made at the end of the comparative study of collected examples of political metaphors from the Russian and Hindi mass media.

References section will include all the used primary and secondary sources during the