People invent a language that uses the lexical items from on or more of the contact languages but which has its own, very primitive grammar. Vocabulary is borrowed from one of the contact languages, but the grammar is not Creole- is a language that once was a pidgin but which subsequently became a native language for some speakers. -Serialization is a process that creates new languages. – if the model is a primitive language, such as pidgin- humans will make it more complex- into a Creole. Neurologist’s- is the study of the relation of the brain to language functioning. -Where language resides in the brain and what it is about the human brain that makes language possible. Cerebral cortex- is the outer layer of the brain.
The cortex controls higher mental functions, such as reasoning and planning, and the substantial structures control more primitive functions, such as eating and breathing. – The cortex itself is divided into two cerebral hemispheres; in the most individuals, the area of the cortex that sits over the ear ( the temporal lobe) is larger in the left cerebral hemisphere than in the right. -The left and right vertebral hemispheres are connected by a band of nerve fibers known as the corpus callous. – Each cerebral hemisphere is connected to the opposite side of the body. These intra lateral connections, the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa.
Aphasia- condition in which language functions are severely impaired Brooch’s Aphasia- difficulty producing speech and the speech they do produce seems to lack grammatical structure. Their speech tends to consist of short strings of content words- nouns and verbs- without grammatical morphemes. -Typically associated with damage to the front part of the left hemisphere, near the part of the cortex that controls movement. – Left-hemisphere damage, which results in language impairment ‘Seat of grammar’ express or they use made-up, meaningless words. Describes as “syntactically full but semantically empty’. – Damage to the right cerebral hemisphere, which causes visual-spatial information. – ‘Seat of meaning -Typically associated with damage to a region more posterior than Brooch’s area, next to the primary auditory cortex.
Functional Asymmetry- The characteristic of the human brain in which each hemisphere serves different functions. -The account of brain development as moving from an initial state of redundant capacity throughout the brain to one of nonrefundable. Daily use of the left hemisphere for language appears to stabilize language in the left hemisphere and allows elimination of the redundant right hemisphere capacity. If the left hemisphere is damaged early in life, the right hemisphere still has the capacity to take over language functions, but with age that capacity declines. Plasticity- is the ability of parts of the brain to take over functions they ordinarily would not serve. Brain tissue does not regenerate once it is damaged -Children’s brains have more plasticity than adult brains do (but adult’s brains do have some, but children’s brains have more. Children with left hemisphere damage can recover some language using the right hemisphere (never complete recovery) Critical period Hypothesis- the notion that a biologically determined period exists during which language acquisition must occur, if it is to occur at all. – When baby bird’s hatch, the first thing they see is their mother and will follow her around; this is said that babies are imprinted on their mother. – Some environmental input is necessary for normal development, but biology determines when the organism is responsive to that input. That period of responsively is the critical period.
Ex: some cells in the brain respond to input from both eyes in the normal adult, but if these cells fail to receive input from two eyes during the first year or two of life, they lose this capacity. Left/Right Hemisphere- The left hemisphere is specialized for language, and the right hemisphere is specialized for processing visual-spatial information. – Right hemisphere makes some contribution to normal language functioning. -Right hemisphere lesion patient sometimes produce abnormal intonation contour when they speak and they may have difficulty recognizing the emotional tone of an utterance, Right hemisphere damage patients have difficulty understanding Jokes, requests. Right hemisphere is involved in semantics and pragmatics but that syntax is the province of left hemisphere. -Left hemisphere is specialized for damage, regardless of modality – Left hemisphere damage resulted in aphasia for signers Just as it does for users of spleen language, even though sign language used a visual-spatial modality, signers with right hemisphere damage were not aphasic. Language = Human Universal – Whenever there are humans there is language. – All humans are capable of learning language Language is not merely something that humans can do it exposed to the right conditions but that language is something that humans cannot help doing.
Chapter 3: Communicative Development Intentionality- the characteristic of having a purpose or goal (in speaking) -The infant -Contact with another mind -Intentionality distinguishes reflexive communication from true communication – Evidence of intentionality: – Extends arm to show you something – Points at some interesting object or event – Extend arms to be picked up – Requests something by reaching – Pretend actions and objects. Development of Intentionality: Speech acts- Doing things with words -Precautionary Phase: -Birth. вЂ” 9 months of age -Children produce reflexive communication (adults assume the infant is trying to communicate) -Child does not intend to communicate. Ex: The child who wants an object that is out of reach may try to get it and may make a fuss in the process. The mother may observe the child, infer the child’s desires, and get the object fort the child. – The child’s behavior has the affect of obtaining the object, but the child makes no effort to communicate with the mother. Elocutionary Phase: -вЂ”10-12 months of age Children come to understand that other people can be helpful in satisfying ones goals and that it is possible to elicit this help by communicating with them. -Beginning of intentional communication -Actively tries to get adults attention -Communicative goal but no language form -Visualization, gestures, physical behavior Ex: a child who wants something will not Just reach and fuss but will actively try to elicit another aid in obtaining that object -Elocutionary Phase: – >12 months – When children’s communicative behavior includes using language to refer – Intends to communicate & use words Words are used referentially or as part of communicative routine. – This phase does not suddenly begin with the child’s first words.
Ex: First uses the sound “mm” with a pointing gesture to indicate a request. A little more advanced, a child uses “bam” while knocking down blocks, but is used a part of the activity. It does not stand for of used to refer to the activity. Gradually children begin to use language referentially 0 at that point; all three components if speech acts are in Joint attention – The state in which the child and an adult together attend to some third entity. A major milestone in speech act development is the change from the precautionary to the elocutionary phase. – Before Joint attention (10 months) infants are able to relate to an object or to another person but not to both at the same time.
Ex: relating to an object 0 playing with a rattle of looking at a mobile over ones crib. Relating to another person 0 smiling or cooing. – Between the ages of 9-15 months (or after 10 months) children spend much of their time with others in Joint attention (mutual engagement). -Engages in “conversations” with adult about object First Joint attention is nonverbal but as they become older, nonverbal symbols such as gesture and verbal symbols (words) are used in these interactions. -The role of Joint attention in language learning: – Facilitates language development – More Joint attention = advanced language development – Early Joint attention skills may reflect earlier brain maturity. Better Joint attention skills 0 more international episode; better at engaging adults. – 18 month, all typically developing children can follow the speaker attention. Can engage in Joint attention -30 months, the role of Joint attention declines and the child becomes utter at initiating conversations. -Autism and Speakers Syndrome 0 have mild to profound impairments in Joint attention -Lack of initiating and lack of interest in engaging in Joint attention. Maternal Responsiveness -Adult treats the infant as a conversational partner since birth. -Assume visualization have meaning – Use any child behavior to interact -Mothers “pull intentionality’ out of their child