Laparoscopy and the lasik

In the past years, much medical technological advancement has taken place and has resulted into enormous impact on today’s society. Some of the major advancements are like Laparoscopy and the lasik eye surgery, kidney and liver transplant technology, DNA technology which has lead to the new genetic engineering and many others (Hugenholtz, et al. 1999).

The acute myocardial infarction treatment is more aggressive and interventional today than ever before. Considering that it nowadays involves early angioplasty, thrombolitic agents, and cardiac care unit monitoring which was introduce d in the year 2003, there has been a significant improvement.

An overview of the past 10 years plus show that there has been a significant intervention in terms of performances of these technologies. In 1995, the coronary artery bypass grafting and thrombosis were introduced.

These technologies have saved lives. A statistical survey shows that an 8% early mortality due to first acute myocardial infarction that was seen 50 years ago indicates the reduction by nearly 75 percent to date. A reduction attributed to these medical technological advancements since then (Braunwald, 1991).

The history of asthma treatments dates back to thousand years. However, most important advances were made in the last 20 years. The pharmaceutical companies have played an important role in the development of asthma medications.

The current asthma drug therapy has proved to highly effective. It has evolved from simple naturally occurring substances to highly complex drugs through the intervention of logical pharmaceutical developments.

The most effective bronchodilators evolved from catecholamine from the adrenal medulla in the late 1990s, whereas corticosteroids, from the adrenal cortex are generally the most effective controllers of the underlying inflammatory process in the airways.

In the 2003, the current gold standard asthma therapy (a combination inhaler containing a long –acting 2-agonist) with a corticosteroid which is an improved adrenal gland extract (Kuller, 2006).

A more recent developed inhibition of key cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 developed in the 2004 have been found to have little or no clinical efficacy in treatment of asthma patient. The lack of efficacy of single mediator antagonists indicates the multiplicity of mediators in asthma treatment therefore suggesting that the effective asthma therapies should have a broad spectrum of anti- inflammatory activity (Koch, 2003).

Highly effective drugs to manage asthma have lead to marked reduction in hospital admission and even reduce mortality for this increasingly common disease. Thus, most asthma patients can now lead a normal life through the modern medications free of side effects.

Initially considered a very risky path or procedure, cardiologists can now place coronary artery stents to prevent routine heart attacks. This is due to advancements in auto- immune suppression medications and surgical techniques that have developed in the recent years, organ transplants have become very common with significant outcomes and this has led to many lives being saved in dialysis centers (Fabricius, et al. 1980).

In recent years, the most common progress has been made in pharmaceuticals. It is now possible prescription drugs reduces disease processes and prolong lives virtually in all areas of medical field. This is in such areas as AIDS, coronary artery diseases, diabetes, renal insufficiency, cancer, stroke, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure and many more ( Ornato,et al. 2001).


These advancements have no doubt changed the treatment approach to diseases and changed as a whole the length of disease treatment and prevention. Further molecular research is likely to yield insights into the origins and even cure of diseases like AIDS and cancer that have proved difficult nuts to crack worldwide.


Braunwald, E. 1991:  The golden age of cardiology, New York, Elsevier.

Hugenholtz, G. et al. 1999: On Jumbo and junk trials: a fumbled affair, a jungle, or the ultimate solution? Am J Cordial; 67:763-4.

Koch, K. 2003: Antiarrhythmic prophylaxis in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1971; 285:1024-5.

Kuller L.2006: Prevention of cardiovascular disease and risk-factor intervention trials. Circulation; 61:26-8.

Fabricius, N. et al. 1980: Subendorcardial and transmural myocardial infarction. Am J Med; 66:986-990.

Ornato, J. et al. 2001: Warning signs of a heart attack. Circulation; 103: 124–e125.