LCC- Wildlife Lab Final

Viral Diseases

Contagious Ecthyma (CE)

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Rabies

Duck Plague

Canine Distemper

Parasitic Diseases

Nematodes (roundworms)

-meningeal worm (internal parasite of white tailed deer… problem when contracted by domestic) (can cause paralysis… doesn’t infect humans)

Pasterella/Lungworm complex (Bighorn lambs, coughing and unthriftiness, transmission indirect)

Trichinella spiralis (predators and humans… direct from meat)

;

Cestodes (tapeworms)

-Taenia krabbei (wolf, coyote, lynx, bear… not humans or livestock. No symptoms, indirect transmission)

Echinococcus granulosus (many hosts… indirect transmission)

;

Trematodes (flukes +flatworms)

-Fascioloides magna (liver fluke… WTD and elk.. no symptoms.. indirect)

;

Protozoa

Sarcosystis (dabbling ducks, rufed grouse, cottontail, deer, moose, elk…. get cysts… indirect transmission)

Bacterial Diseases

Tularemia (muskrats, beaver, rodents, humans. SYM: death, thin and weak… humans get ulcer at site of entry.. fever and chills. Indirect)

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Yersiniosis (birds, mammals, humans… stressed animals. Cannot be distinguished from Tularemia… from contaminated food/water)

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Salmonellosis (small birds stressed conditions. depressed, ot flying, exposed. direct with feces)

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Avian Cholera (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, raptors. direct. green diharrea)

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Brucellosis (infects humans. bison, elk, caribou, and many domestic.)

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Tuberculosis (mammalian) (most mammals, direct, cough up blood, fatigue, etc)

Fungal Disease

-Aspergillosis (common in birds and ducks, fungus ball in lungs, no symptoms to coughing of blood)

;

-Ringworm (any mammal, similar to mange… loss of hair, dry grey rusty skin… direct)

Toxic Diseases

Botulism (mainly ducks, some medium sized birds. paralysis.. interferes with transmission of impulses from nerves to skeletal muscles. transmission is environmental. produced by bacteria)

;

Lead Poisoning (ingestion of lead shot pellets… waterfowl for grit.. loss of appetite, weakness, weight loss, green diarrhea, death)

Ectoparasites

Sarcoptic Mange

Tick Infestation

Definitions of Disease, Parasite, Bacteria, Virus

Disease:a disorder or structure/function not directly related to a physical injury

;

Parasite:an organism that lives in or on a host at the host’s expense

 

Bacteria:a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and organized nucleus

 

Virus:an infective agent composed of genetic material and a protein coat

Define: Fungus, toxin, proximate cause, ultimate cause

Fungus: a group of spore producing organisms that feed on organic matter. Lack chlorophyll.

 

Toxin: a poison or venom of plant or animal origin

 

Proximate Cause:closest to, or immediately responsible for cause

 

Ultimate Cause: the “real” reason

enzootic vs epizootic

enzootic is constantly present in population at low levels, therfore low mortality

epizootic occurs at greater than normal rates (outbreaks)… higher mortality

Def of occurrence/prevalence/incidence/epidemiology/susceptibility/virulence/transmission/reservoir/vector

occurrence: pattern of disease in time and space

prevalence: proportion infected at given time/place

incidence: # of new cases per unit time at a place

epidemiology: study of disease in a population

susceptibility: genetic or decreased immunity

virulence: speed and severity of symptoms once infected

transmission: spread from infectious to susceptible

reservoir: hosts that sustain agent of disease

vector: organism that transfers a disease

zoonic disease

can be transferred from animals to humans

-70% of human diseases have a wildlife component

direct and indirect transmission

DIRECT

-contact (physical) required

-no intermediate stages

(ie. sarcoptic mange)

 

INDIRECT
-need intermediate host

-ie. deer liver fluke, brain worm, lung worm

Chronic Wating Disease

-deer and elk

-concern for farmed cervids

-group known as TSE
-fatal

-similar to mad cow disease

-caused by modified protein (prion)

-accumulate and cause tiny holes in brain (sponge)

-transmission unclear (animal to animal, also maternal, contaminated feed/water)

 

SIGNS
-excessive salivation

-lethargy

-poor coordination

-trembling

-‘waste’ away

-drooping ears and head

 

*Is a federally reportable disease

Wildlife Disease Classification

 

MACROPARASITES

(tape worms, extoparasites)

Infectious (live on or in animal)

-Contagious (sarcoptic mange, trichinella)

-Non-Contagious (intermediate hosts)

 

MICROPARASITES (viruses, bacteria, fungal)

Infectious

Contagious: rabies, avian cholera

Non-Contagious: Aspergillosis

 

Non-Infectious (disease lives in external environment)

-toxins/poisons

Lungworm Cycle in BHS

Cause: Protostrongylus stilesi/Pasteurella spp.

 

Adult Lungworm in Lungs

 

Eggs hatch in lungs and young larvae move to ar passages

 

Larvae are coughed up and swallowed

 

Larvae pass through digestive tract and expelled in feces

 

Snals (intermediate host)

 

Infected snals ingested during sheep feeding

 

Circulatory or lymphatic system

 

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Order of deer stomach

Rumen

Reticulum

Omasum

Abomasum (true stomach.. HCl)

Body Condition Indices

Femur/Jaw Marrow

-marrow fat reserves are some of the last reerves used by animals. Cream coloured marow would indicate high levels of fitness, while red jelly like would indicate lowl evels of fitness.

 

Kidney/Fat weight ratio

KFI= (weight fat/weight kidney) * 100

 

Back fat Depth

 

Mesenteric Fat

Capture Myopathy

Captured animals are subjected to stress than can have adverse effects on their physilogical condition. Death can sometimes occur

Muscles may be damaged if too much lactic acid builds up.

 

Do this:

 

1)Animals should be captured and handled in ways to minimize stress

2)Animals shouls not be confined to tight spaces or bound

3)Blindfolds should be used to calm animals

4)Keep animals cool

5)Avoid making excesive noise

6)move animals in corrals slowly and gently

7)Work quickly, thereby limiting handling time

Lethal Traps

Snap traps

Used to capture small mammals in situations where live-capture is not required (pop index, species composition, experimental removals). Baited /w peanut butter or oatmeal.

 

Conibear traps (furbearers … weasels, marten, fishers… set in wooden cubby with bait at back of box)

Cage and box traps

Can be used to capture small to medium size mammals and birds. Commercially-made traps are available for mammals of mouse, squirrel, or racoon size. Baited cage traps are used to capture ducks and other birds.

 

Large cage traps known as Clover traps are successfully used to capture deer, sheep, and goats. Culvert traps (large cage on wheels towed by vehicle) are used to capture bears, particularly problem bears with are acclimated to human-made structures.

 

National Live Trap: one end opens

Havahart Trap: two ends open.. can see through other side

Barrel/culver trap cylinder with sliding guillotine door

Corral Traps
Essentially a large cage trap for capturing several large ungulates at once (elk, sheep, pronghorn). The gate is usualy designed to be closed by a concealed observer from a distance (electrical or radio signal). Once the animals learn to make regular use of the bait in the corral, a one-way gate can be installed which allows the animals to enter but not leave.
snares

for bears, the leg-holding Aldrich snare is often used. Leg snares have been used to live capture lynx and coyotes. Neck snares with closure stoppers can be used to live capture mammals.

 

 

Drop Net
A net suspended over a bait station on poles. The net is dropped on the animals by a remote control which releases electromagnetic couplings or detonates blating-caps to sever the ropes. Drop nets are primarily used for mountain sheep, but also work for deer.
Darts

Used to carry and inject drugs into animals.

Syringe to blow and dart guns.

 

Cap-Chur Syringes: 2.5″ = 3cc

4″ = 7cc

7/5″ = 15ccc

 

Syringe: most basic delivery system. Requires close proximity. Do not inject into major blood vessel.

 

Jab Stick: syrince attached to a pole aand used to inject an animal caught in a trap.

 

Blow Guns: little bruising. Dart self injects. Close range. (Blow guns are restricted weapons in can)

 

Bow and Arrow: similar to blow guns. Increased distance.

 

Tranquilliser gun: Propels a dart containing the drug (propelled by powder charge, compresed air, or CO2). Injected by second powder charge.

Animals must be within 75m. Helicopters commonly used. Can serioulsy injure or kill an animal if dart does not hit major muscle mass. Rarely used on animals smaller than deer.

 

Baits: drug treated baits are used to capture waterfowl and other birds. No control over dosage rate.

Drug Types

Ketamine and Rompun

-Central nervous system anaesthetic and tranquilizer which are mixed together to immobilize wild mammals.

-Reasonably cheap and easy to obtain, safe to use

-Induction time is 5 mins but recover is long (2-4 hours)

 

Etorphine Hydrochloride

CNS anaesthetic. 5 min induction time, and antidote is used to reverse effects.

Underdose can result in a prolonged state of excitation and death due to stress (myopathy).

Extremely dangerous to humans (prick of needle cause death)

 

Telazol

A new, not widely tested but seemingly great drug.

1)more predictable in effects.. induction and recovery are not variable

2)Shorter induction time which reduces stress

3)Telazol has a very wide safety margin for dosage. A mild overdose has little effect on period of anaesthesia.

4)Very seldom causes congvulsions

5)Does not affect thermoregulatory ability of animal

6)Demonstrated to have an extremely low mortality rate

7)5 times more potent that Ketamine/Rompus. Large animals done with single dart.

 

Has been widely used on wolves and lynx

Radio Telemetry

1)Movements (season migration or daily)

2)Habitat Use

3)Home range or territory size

4)Activity patterns

5)Social behaviour (degree of association between marked individuals)

6)Mortality rate

Transmitters

Must try to have it less than 10% of animal’s body weight

1)attachment (can be collars, harnesses for bids, implants for small neck/hear, eartags for bear cups and ungulates, adhesive for birds/whales/etc, stomach for fish)

2)potting (hard resin that secures components together)

3)electrical ciruitry (emits signal)

4)antenna (amplifies strength of signal)

5)battery (powers transmitter)

;

Special features:

1)mortality sensor

2)activity collar

3)heartbeat

4)Drug injecting by remote control

Receivers

Components:

1)Receiver (black box that detect signal)

2)Coaxial cable (connects receiver to antenna)

3)Headphones (connected to receiver an helps to eliminate external noise)

4)Antenna (detect signal strength and direction

;

Strongest signal is peak while weakest is null


Receiver Placement and Options

1)Ground Mobile (hand held or truck mounted. Uses triangulation method

;

2)Ground towers (above trees… reduces signal bounce)

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3)Fixed wing aircraft (directional antennae mounted on each strut point to either side. Can switch from wing to wing. High cost and low precision.

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4)Helicopter – better but very high cost

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4)Satellite. Only for large, far-ranging species (polar bears, whales) very very expensive, accuracy to one km.

;

;

OPTIONS

1)scanner- scans through pre-programmed frequencies and user stops when signal is heard

2)Signal meter – electronically meters the direction of strongest signal

Telemetry operations

Gain: receivers scanning power

Volume: used to detect signal width range (high vol is wide range)

Telemetric Methods

Homing

-Tracker moves in the direction of the signals

;

Triangulation

-Where two signal directions cross, indicates the location of the transmitter.

Aldrich Leg Snare

Thickness of galvanized steel depends on black bear or griz

-dig depression, avoid capturing on toes or up leg… want to get on wrist

-way more dangerous with grizzlies

Trapping deer

Stephenson Box Trap… big heavy baited wooden trap

Clover: lighter and more portable version

;

Net gunning (helicopter)… quick.. don’t need to use drugs “alpine rodeo”

Traps on display

Egg shell trap (raccoon)

 

Wire Snares (cyotes, lynx, bobcat, cougar, wolf)

 

Pigeon trap (medium sized birds)

 

Havahart (small = rats, squirel, chipmunk, weasel) (med= skunk, weasel, mink, rats)

 

National Box (large = coyote, lynx, bobcat, raccoon, dog)

 

 

 

And many more…

Conibear Traps

 

Humane, quick-killing traps for medium-sized mammals.