Lecture 12 – Lecture 16

8 Major Categories of Water Pollutants
1) Infectious Agents2) Oxygen-Demanding Waste3 and 4) Organic & Inorganic Chemicals5) Plant Nutrients6) Sediment7) Radioactive Materials8) Thermal Pollution
Oxygen-Demanding Waste
Things that use up and demand oxygen very quickly when they are in water-therefore there is not enough left for the organisms that are already there-paper mill, some of the waste water they are dumping it out (it contains a lot of nutrients like phosphorus and many nutrients) the nutrients themselves are not oxygen demanding, but they result in oxygen demanding things.

à algae and plankton that are going to use up the nutrients with is going to cause them to reproduce and expand and they are further going to expand SEWGE is also a oxygen demanding waste –> there are lot of nutrients in sewage

Example of Organic Chemicals
organic Chemicals = one of the 8 major categories of water pollutants 1. Kingston Ash Spill-fly ash was spilled and went into the water 2. VOCs in Groundwater-VOCs are coming from= anything with “ane” at the end.

Besine/ methane (anything dealing with oil)-mainly from exhaust, like car exhaust

ex of Inorganic chemicals
Inorganic chemicals = one of the 8 major categories of water pollutants –Anything else that is non-carbon (typically any the metals). In this example it is mercury. Mercury effects brain development in children-all those fish are top of top preditors that probally consumed it and it’ll will eventually affect you (DNK)  
Acid Mine Drainage
 Chemical involved= lead, Arsenic, iron sign= read flowing water -when they are mining and they have the large exposed area, any rain or runoff in the large exposed area is actually pulling and bleaching off the land that is in that area-the reason why it is acid, is often time the rocks are sulfur containing. REMEMBER the iron causes it to be red  
what causes an acid mine drainage to be red?
IRON Chemical involved= lead, Arsenic, iron sign= read flowing water -when they are mining and they have the large exposed area, any rain or runoff in the large exposed area is actually pulling and bleaching off the land that is in that area-the reason why it is acid, is often time the rocks are sulfur containing. REMEMBER the iron causes it to be red
Plant nutrients
bioaccumulation-phosphorous and nitrogen runoff realted to agriculture The farmer is spreading some kind of fertilizer on his field, and that fertilizer is going to contain primarily phosphorus and nitrogen (which will eventually get into the water)à also relates to oxygen demanding
Eutrophic Lakes
THICK green lakes  Eutrophic = very very nutrient rich (in a bad way)Olligal Trophic = usually in tropics – Basically looks like you can walk on this water, but its because of enormous amount of nutrients
Oligotrophic lakes
healthy -low nutrient levels-good light penetration-high dissolved oxygen-deep waters-low algal growth-small mouth bass, lake trout
Gulf of Mexico
under Louisiana and Mississippi -DEPLETED OXYGEN-but not there all hte time, only part of the year-Water aquifers AND largest amount of agriculture is happening in this area
Phytoplankton growth
As the growing season goes on then more and more and nutrients are going down, the large red area (represent the most phytoplankton) will grow in size
Ex.

of the effects of PLANT NUTRIENTS

-eutophic lakes-depleted oxygen in Gulf of Mexico-Phytoplankton growth-global dead zones
Global Dead zones
Theres a lot of them in the world. Mostly in Europe because there is not alot of fishing, FISHING IS IMPORTANT -can be: persistant, annual, OR episodic/ periodic, -if you could somehow dillute it, it will be better (kind of like the soulution to pollution is dillution)-the reason why this is problem is because it is actually confined
Examples of how SEDIMENT as a water pollutant
Three gorges river in China (you would see this in Nile, Mississippi river) -a lot of sediment in water = changes elevation/ it makes the water foggy and you cant have photosynthesis
A stream with high levels of sediment…..-WHAT happens-WHERE does this happen
-sediment prevents light penitration; photosynthetic organisms cannot survive along bottom -potential shelters burried under sediment -aquatic organims attached to rocks removed by sediment washing along along bottom  WHERE? Usually happens from outflow of rivers-can also happen in construction sites-also happens by crew ships  
Effect of Cruise ships by the shore/ ports
 -water is very shallow where it is throwing up all the sediment on the bottom(the chorals and fish are impacted)-this is something that happens repeatedly on the same day over the season THIS CAUSES-sediment to be a water pollutant-sediment prevents light penitration; photosynthetic organisms cannot survive along bottom 
Radioactive Material
Radioactive material= one of the 8 majore categories of water pollutants RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL= can also happen near hospitals from hospital waste/ at nuclear power plants there shouldn’t be any contamination of radioactive material BUT they could be someRADIOACTIVE MATERIAL= probably the smallest one out of all of them
what kind of waste happens near hospitals?
radioactive material, which is one of the 8 major categories of water pollutants
Thermal Pollution
-also can happen near a nuclear powerplant-VERY VERY hot-also imapcts the amount of dissolved oxygen that can be stored in that waterWater is less capable of holding dissolved oxygen when it is warmer
as water is warmer, what happens to it’s capacity to hold dissolved oxygen?
Higer water temps, the greater the capcity to hold dissolved oxygen
Problems in Chesapeake Bay

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76pt; margin-bottom: 0pt; margin-left: 0.37in; text-indent: -0.37in; text-align: left; direction: ltr; unicode-bidi: embed; vertical-align: baseline;”>1.1940S-2004 population of the watershed has more than quadrupled

2.Large watershed;9 large rivers, 131 streams ; creeks, 6 states
3.Shallow;only 1% of the waste is flushed to the ocean
4.Recent increase in Phosphorus and Nitrogen
5.Commercial harvest of oysters, crabs, fish species have all declined since 1960

Chesapeake’s Good News
Integrated Coastal Management program:

1.

Land-use regulations (EX. controls what kind of fertilizers you can use at homes/ buildings)

2.Ban phosphate detergents
3.Upgrade sewage treatment plants
4.Monitor Industrial Discharge
5.

Restore Wetlands (wetlands would act like a kind of filter of nutrients)

;P decreased 27%
;N decreased 16%
;Re-growth of sea grasses in the bay (shows oxygen is rising)

WHAT IS THE Integrated Coastal Management program?
chesapeak BAYIntegrated Coastal Management program:

1.Land-use regulations (EX.

controls what kind of fertilizers you can use at homes/ buildings)

2.Ban phosphate detergents
3.Upgrade sewage treatment plants
4.

Monitor Industrial Discharge

5.Restore Wetlands (wetlands would act like a kind of filter of nutrients)
;P decreased 27%
;N decreased 16%
;Re-growth of sea grasses in the bay (shows oxygen is rising)

Chesapeak and OYSTERS
there has been a steady decrease in the amount of oysters in the Chesapeak from 1953-2000.?-This decrease is due to over-harvesting of oysters;-Because they have killed off all the native oysters, they have actually added a new species of oysters that are from Japan. The addition of more oysters decreased the amount of nitrogen in the water -BAD aspect to adding species to an ecosystem: unknown affect on the ecosystem that nobody planned, this is likely to happen
what is the redline in the picture thing?
biological oxygen demand
what goes into street drains?
-hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust-nitrogen and phorosphours from lawn fertilizers
most of old stresm in philly are…

..

underground
what percent of philadelphia’s streams are combined sewers?
60%
combined sewer
Combined: Stormwater sewer from the road and the house sewer are eventually combinedCombined sewer= when you have a lot of precipitation, you will always get sewage overflow.

Either back up into houses or you would get raw sewage into the outfall. Likely that all of the sewage wont make it to the sewer water treatment plant. IMPROVE THIS: more ways to collect runoff (porage surfaces, increased vegitation, storage tanks that will store the water temporatily)

Separate Sewer
the pipe that carries water from both houses and STORM/ ROAD drains is NOT combined
2 kinds of sewers
sewer= the pipe that carries sewage to a sewage treatment plant or stormwater runoff to a natural stream 1. combined sewer2. seperate sewer
what happens to COMBINED sewers when it rains?
runoff from the storm drains can cause the pipe to overflow and sicharge a stormwater runoff and diluted sewage to a natural stream -backsup alot hwen it rains Combined sewer= when you have a lot of precipitation, you will always get sewage overflow. Either back up into houses or you would get raw sewage into the outfall. Likely that all of the sewage wont make it to the sewer water treatment plant.

what are ways to collect URBAN run off
porous surfaces, increased vegetation, storage tanks that will store the water temporarily  -green roofs-Rain barrels= can collect water, and it actually stores it and you can use it later (pic of the hand)= porous concreate, that allows rain water to come throw
Municipal Water Pollution

Urban runoff of water is high compared to suburban and rural areas
(bc it has the most impervious surfaces)
Includes salt, garbage, animal waste, construction sediments, traffic emissions, metal, oil/gas…
(problem bc water is universal solvent so all this stuff can dissolve in it)
Combined sewers overflow in heavy rain – 1.

2 trillion galls discharge every year!

Rain barrels, pervious concrete, and green roofs all help reduce runoff

Ex of sources of some industrial pollutants?
1. Farms= herbicides, insecticides, animal waste2. pupl mill= colored ligin fragments3. Sewer= dyes, cosemetics, drugs 
what country has the most industrial pollution
RUSSIAit doenst treat water
why do some countries use A LOT of water but they don’t have as much water pollution as most countries
Alot of countries that use the most water, actually treat the water
Industrial Water Pollution

;Often related to oxygen-demanding, organic, and/or inorganic waste
;Some countries mandate treatment of wastewater from industrial process
;Recovery of metal
;Hazardous waste
;Accidental spills;.

.(don;t have rest in my notes)

what kind of the aquifer has the most problem?
unconfined one   Confined one is protected because usually the clay is preventing anything from entering it
how do NITRATES affect the human body
 -nitrates are a problem in shallow groundwater-nitrates reduce how much oxygen your blood can carry = finger and lips and other things turn blue(baby’s are often prone to it, if they consume water with a lot of nitrate)  
Groundwater Pollution
 

Various sources
Nitrates are a problem in shallow groundwater—can cause cyanosis
Natural ability of soil and rock to remove pollutant varies from site to site
Clean-up is expensive
Contaminated wells are usually shut down

 

Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh

1980S WHO (World Health Organization) installed 2.5 million wells with hand pumps
Sediments contain naturally high levels of arsenic
As many as 70 million are at risk for arsenic poisoning
Inexpensive filtration is possible
But then you’ll have a lot of trapped arsenic to get rid of

video: Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh
—they dug the wells to avoid diseases BUT BACKFIRE (at the disco) à also arsenic VIDEO: Installed 20 years ago. Video happened in 2007. Said water from the pumps is actually odorless, colorless, and taste normal.

Arsenic can lead to cancer and death. Symptoms are discoloration and deformities. Afraid that telling a lot of people may cause panic or that it may be ignored.-early one if you drink clean water and eat healthy food it can be reverse ONLY EARLY ON though, for most people this is just the water they are drinking

Drinking water purification
 Reservoir block by dam –> water supply system (where it will sit for a couple of days so big sediments will settle down) –> input to a sewage treatment system: add chemicals (florid and chlorine) –> wastewater treatment plants (not all the water is sent out, sometimes they stay in reservoirs) Wastewater treatment plans = downstreamReservioir= usually upstream^therefore it goes from upstream to downstream
Drinking Water
Purifying procedure in developed countries:

1.Stored in a reservoir for several days
2.Chemical add coagulants
3.Filtered
4.chlorinated

In developing countries:

Expose water to intense sunlight fo ~3 hrs in clear plastic bottle (one side painted black) to kill infectious microbes.

Cloth strips for filtering
chlorine

Sources of Ocean Pollution
Negative= both the crops and animals are right on the river, going to increase runoffPositive= removed, actually have a “buffer” zone that acts act as a filter for the polltion, more trees à prevents runoff from going in
1982 Law of the Sea

  adopted by UN
4 out of 130 countries voted against: United States, Turkey, Venezuela, Israel
(all the other 130 countries that were by an ocean where for it)
Treaty places 40% of the world’s ocean under the control of coastal countries

USA EEZ includes HOW MANY sq miles of ocean
USA EEZ includes 4 million sq miles of ocean, an area 30% large the the land area of the United States
1982 Law of the Sea:Territorial waters
Territorial watersextends 12 miles out into the ocean from the coastline (within the territorial waters that country has complete jurisdiction) Territorial waters: anything that is social and political extends 12 miles, as soon as you get into that 12mile limit you need to identify and produce a passport
1982 Law of the Sea:EEZ

EEZextends 200 nautical miles (nautical miles larger than a regular mile)
EEZ; you are allowed to hangout there if you outside of the 12 miles, can’t take anything/ harvest anything or reach any economic benefit (it belongs to that country)^Exclusive Economic Zone

what DOES EEZ stand for
Exclusive Economic Zone
U.S.

EEZ

U.S. EEZ: Does not include a “high seas” provision US have a problem with the High seas part, they want to extend their EEZ’s. want more than the 200 nautical miles