LEED GA Exam 2013

What does LEED stand for?
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(2) Parts to the LEED Environment

1. Accreditation of professionals

2. Certification of sustainable projects

(3) Tiers of professional LEED Accreditation

1. LEED Green Associate

2. LEED Accredited Professional (AP)

3. LEED AP Fellow

GBCI (2) Basic Functions

1. Development and administration of the accreditation examinations

2. Managing the LEED project certification process in its entirety


USGBC: Develops LEED Green Building Rating Systems

GBCI: Provides 3rd Party LEED Professional credentials

What is the USGBC?

U.S. Green Building Council

– Committee based; member driven; consensus focused

– Provides tools and expertise; Educates the industry and public

Triple Bottom Line

Economic Prosperity

Social Responsibility

Environmental Stewardship

(People, Profit, Planet)

LEED Rating System: Project Types
LEED for New Contsruction
LEED for Core & Shell
LEED for Commercial Interiors
LEED for Schools
LEED for Homes
LEED for Existing Buildings (O&M)
LEED for Healthcare; for Retail; for Neighborhood Development
Green Building Categories

Sustainable Sites

Water Efficiency

Energy and Atmosphere

Materials and Resources

Indoor Environmental Quality

Innovation in Design

Regional Priority

LEED for New Construction

– New Buildings and Major Renovation

– 4+ habitable stories

– Major HVAC Replacement or modification

– Owner or tenant occupies greater than 50% of leasable space

LEED for Core and Shell

– Developer does not control leasable tenant space

– Owner or tenant occupies less than 50% of leasable area

LEED for Commercial Interiors

– Tenant Space

– Tenant spaces cannot occupy entire building

*Works hand-in-hand with LEED Core and Shell

Multiople Certifications:

– LEED for NC, CS, or Schools

– LEED for CS

– LEED for NC, CS, or Schools = LEED E.B. (O&M)

– LEED for CS = LEED for CI

LEED Reference Guide (2009)

– Process for achieving LEED certification

– Credit and pre-req. information

– Resources and standards for the rating system

Prerequisites vs. Credits

Prerequisites: Mandatory for certification; earn the project NO points


Credits: Non-mandatory; Certification requires achievement of a minimum number of credit points

LEED Certification Types and Points

– Certified: 40-49 pts.

– Silver: 50-59 pts.

– Gold: 60-79 pts.

– Platinum: 80+ pts.

Prerequisites: Intents vs. Requirements

Intents: Sustainability goal


Requirements: Method to achieve sustainability goal

Expemplary Performance

– Earning additional points for exceeding the minimum credit performance 

** No prerequisites offer expemplary performance points

Building Carbon Footprint
Total greenhouse gas emissions associated with its construction and operation.
Credit Interpretation Requests (CIRs)

– Can be submitted anytime after project registration

– Must be submitted via LEED Online

– One per prerequisite or credit per submittal

– Cannot be revised after submittal

– $220 per each application

Who can review CIRs?
USGBC company members, LEED registered project team members, and USGBC workshop attendees

Minimum Project Requirements (MPRs)


(3) Goals:

1. Provide clear guidance to customer

2. Protect integrity of the LEED Program

3. Reduce complications that may occur during certification process

Minimum Project Requirements (MPRs)


1. Must comply with Environmental Laws

2. Be a complete or Permanent Building/Space

3. Use a reasonable Site Boundary

4. Comply with Minimum Floor Area Requirements

5. Comply with Minimum Occupancy Rates

6. Commit to sharing Whole Building Energy and Water Usage Data for 5 years

7. Comply with Minimum Building Area to Site Area Ratio

Minimum Floor Area Requirement

1,000 SF

* LEED for CI: 250 SF

Minimum Occupancy Rate


* LEED E.B. (O&M): 1 FTE, systems in bldg. must be operation 12 months before certification

Minimum Building Area to Site Area Ratio
[Gross Floor Area] must be GREATER THAN 2% of the [GROSS LAND AREA] within the LEED project boundary
LEED Project Boundary

All contigous land that is associated with the LEED project building

*Gerrymandering is prohibited!

LEED Online

– Where the project teams manage the LEED registration

– Complete documentation requirements

– Submit applications for review

– Earn LEED certification

Credit Scorecard

– Assess and track attempted credits

– Lists all prerequisites and credits for each category [yes; no; maybe]


– Provides project coordination

– Responsibilities and status of team members

– Project Team documentation coordination

– Entire certification process

– Coordinates codes and standards

** MUST play a principle role in the project to be eligibile for an Innovation in Design Credit

LEED Certification is provided by _______
an independent 3rd party
Submittal Review Status

1. Anticipated: does not guarantee acceptance; credit is belived to meet requirements

2. Pending: GBCI requires more information

3. Awarded: Met the requirements, and points are earned

4. Denied: Has not met requirements

LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG)
Assist in interpreting credits and developing technical improvements to the LEED Green Building rating system
USGBC Logo Policy

– The mark may be used only to refer to the USGBC program or products.

– The mark may not be used on any type of product packaging

– The official organization name is the U.S. Green Building Council.

– “USGBC” is the official acronym

-Use of the LEED Certification Mark is authorized only after a project is LEED certified.

Project Certification Process

  1. Register Project
  2. Prepare Application
  3. Submit Application
  4. Application Review
  5. Certification

Suistainable Sites

– Site selection

– Transportation related emission reduction

– Stormwater management

– Heat island reduction

– Light pollution reduction

– Protection of existing habitats and ecosystems

Property Boundary vs. Project Boundary

Property Boundary: Total area within the legal boundaries of the site; it encompasses all areas of the site, including constructed and nonconstructed areas

Project Boundary: The platted property line of the project defining land and water within it

Transportation accounts for XX% of the Nation’s greenhouse gas emissions
Site Selection Strategies

– Increase development density

– Redevelopment: previously developed site; restore brownfield site

– Protect the habitat

– Urban development: mass transit and community connectivity

Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan (ESC)

– Reduce construction Pollution

– Prevent loss of soil by stormwater and wind

– Prevent sedimentation

– Prevent pollution of the air

ESC Strategies

– Mulching

– Erosion control blankets

– Straw bales

– Berms

– Silt fence

– Reduce site disturbance

– Reduce building footprint/ increase open space

– Protect and restore existing habitat

Stormwater Management Plan (SWP)
Reduces and controls the amount of inreased sormwater created by the project.
SWP: Quantity Control Strategies

– Minimize impervious areas

– Grid pavers

– Vegetated roofs

– Ridirect flow rate (retention and detention ponds, rain gardens, etc.)

– Harvest rainwater: Collect and reuse

Heat Island Effect

Urban area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas by 2-10°

(Roofs and Non-roofs)

The ability of a material to emit heat by radiation
Albedo (Solar Reflectance)
The measure of a material’s ability to relfect sunlight
Solar Reflectance Ratio (SRI)
The measure of a material’s ability to reject solar heat

Ideal relationship:

_______ Emissivity and _____ Albedo and SRI.

LOWER Emissivity and HIGHER Albedo and SRI.
The amount of absorbed heat that is radiated from a surface
Green Roof Benefits

– Reduce the buildings’ energy consumption

– Provides vegetated open space and refuge for habitats

– Reduces the heat island effect

Reducing Heat Island Effect Strategies: NONROOFS

– Reduce area of hardscapes

– Shading (50%+ of total hardscape)

– Cool Pavements

– Open grid pavement systems

– Parking under cover (atleast 50%; roof of cover must be a minimum SRI of 29)

Reducing Heat Island Effect Strategies- ROOFS

– Cool roofs (controlled SRI value of roof materials; atleast 75% of roof area)

– Green Roofs (covers atleast 50%)

– Install high albedo (SRI) roof surfaces

Intent of Light Pollution Reduction

– Minimize light trespass from the building and the site

– Reduce sky glow to increase night sky access

– Improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction

– Reduce development impact on nocturnal environments

Light Pollution Reduction Strategies- INTERIOR


– Indirect interior lighting

– Shut-off non emergency lighting

– Automatic shielding 

Light Pollution Reduction Strategies- EXTERIOR


– Design site lighting with a computer model

– Only light requried areas (comfort and safety)

– Shut-off and/or reduce lighting levels for non-essential lighting

– Use full cut-off light fixtures, low angle spotlights, & low reflectance surfaces

Development Density

(Credit Option Requirement)

Construct or renovate a building on a previously developed site and in a community with a minimum density of 60,000 SF/acre

– based on 2-story buildings

– Gross building area (SF) per site area (Acres)

Full Time Equivalent (FTE)

Regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the project building.

– Part Time FTE: Value based on their hours per week divided by 40

The variety of life in all forms, levels, and combinations, including ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity.
plant material from trees, grasses, or crops that can be converted to heat energy to produce electricity.
SWP: Triple Bottom Line

Economic: Early implemented SWP reduces damage to site that later must be corrected.

Social: Reducing damage to adjoining properties

Environment: Reduces flood and sedimentationof downstream land and waterways; irrigation uses for reused stormwater

Water Efficiency Intent

Indoor potable water reduction

Outdoor potable water reduction

Water efficiency as a teaching tool

Potable Water
Water that meets or exceeds EPA’s drinking water quality standards and is approved for human consumption

Domestic waste water composed of wash water from kitchen, bathroom, and laundry sinks, tubs, and washers.

– Untreated household water

Wastewater from toilets and urinals
Spent or used water from a home, farm, community, or industry
Runoff water resulting from precipitation

Potable Water Use Reduction-


– Using nonpotable water sources

– Installing water efficient fixtures

– Reuse of stormwater and graywater for toilet flushing and custodial purposes

Potable Water Use Reduction-


– Use of native plants

– Drip irrigation

Potable Water Use Reduction Benefits

1. Increased water efficiency

2. Reduction of energy consumption

3. Reduction of energy related pollution

Indoor Water
Water closets (toilets), urinals, lavatories, showers, sinks
Outdoor Water
landscape irrigation
Process water
Building equipment that require water
Flush Fixtures vs. Flow Fixtures

Flush: Gallons per flush (GPF

– toilets and urinals


Flow: Gallons per minute (GPM)

– faucets, lavatories, sinks, and showerheads

Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct)
Standard plumbing fixtures regulation

Water Closets ____ GPF


Urinals ____ GPF

Water closets 1.6 GPF

Urinals 1.0 GPF

Toilets account for XX% of our daily water consumption
Toilets account for 25% of our daily water consumption
EPA sponsored partnership program that promotes water efficiency for water efficient products, programs, and practices
Meters indoor water and irrigation systems to monitor consumption and locate leaks
Energy and Atmosphere Intent
Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency, building and building-systems commissioning, managing refrigerants, renewable energy, energy performance
Fossil Fuels
fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms
Buildings consume approximately XX% of energy and XX% of the electricity produced in the US
Buildings consume approximately 39% of energy and 72% of the electricity produced in the US
Burning Fossil Fuels produces combustion that releases:

1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

2. Greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change

(4) Key Elements of Energy Usage

1. energy demand

2. energy efficiency

3. renewable energy

4. ongoing energy performance

Building Simulation Model (energy)
Analyzes and compares the energy consumption of the design case against a baseline case for a similar building which is designed to conventional building and engineering standards.
Renewable Energy Sources

  • Photovoltaic
  • Wind energy
  • Solar thermal- active and passive
  • Biofuels (wood by-products and agricultural waste)
  • Geothermal heating
  • Low impact hydroelectric
  • Wave and tidal

Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

sold separately from the underlying physical electricity 

– Off site renewable energy