1.Igneous Rock
Rock that forms from hardened lava


Ex. Obsidian, Pumice

2. Sedimentary Rock
Rocks that form from sediment being put under pressure


Ex. Limestone, Sandstone

3. Metamorphic Rock
A rock that has been put under

heat and pressure


Ex. Gneiss, Schist

4. Rock Cycle
The CIRCLE OF LIIIIIIIFEEE, but having to do with rocks.


Ex. the formation of rocks

5. Erosion
The removal of a sediment from a rock structure by water of wind means.
6. Weathering
Same as erosion


Ex. Look above

7.Soil Horizons
layers of soil


Always start at topsoil


Always end at bedrock

8. Continental Drift
The reason why our continents look the way they do.


This is still going on in present day

9.Theory of Tectonic plates
Explains how volcanoes form, how island form, and why we get earthquakes


This is one of the most useful and important theories in science

10. Abraham Ortielius
first person to believe of there being a super continent such as pangaea


Creator of first modern atlas

11. Arthur Holmes
Pioneered use of radiactive dating of rocks


First Scientist to grasp mantle convection

12. Alfred Wegner
Originator of continental drift theory


theory was controversial up until the 50’s when it was then accepted

13. Gondwanaland
The southern portion of the supercontinent pangaea


This was formed from our present day continents

14. Laurasia
The northern part of Pangaea


Formed of, you guessed it, asia and north america

15. Harry Hess
One of the founding fathers of the theory of tectonic plates


Best known for explaining the seafloor spreading

16. Pangaea
Supercontinent that existed in paleozoic era


made up of our 7 present day continents.

17. Sea Floor Spreading
the process in which islands are made by ocean volcano eruptions
18. Divergent Plates
tectonic plates that move away from eachother


form trenches

19. convergent plates
tectonic plates that collide together


create earthquakes

20. transform plates
tectonic plates that shift by their sides


create ridges

21. Cindercone volcano
volcanoes made of their own debris


this includes volcanic ash, cinders, ect.


cone shaped (WARNING! NOT FOR ICECREAM!!!)

22. composite cone volcano
volcano in the shape of a cone


formed by layers of hardened lava, ash, pumice, and tethra.

23. Shield volcano
built almost entirely of fluid lava


resembles a shield lying on the ground

24. Volcanic effects on lithosphere
it can go both ways.


it can burn down the trees and affect the wildlife around it


but also deposit those remains into the soil, causing it to be fertilized.

25. layers of the earth
the four parts of the earths interior that keeps it the way it is


they include the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core

26. isostasy
the equilibrium that exists between parts of the mantle


pretty much keeps them at a small distance

27. Faults
a crack in the earths crust


think of a crack in your screen or a cut in your skin. it kinda resembles that

28. seismic waves
waves of energy that travel through the earths layers


can be a result of an earthquake, explosion, or volcano

29. focus and epicenter
epicenter is the part in the crust above the impact point in the mantle


kinda like pinpointing where it happened and where it will impact most severely

30. tsunami
a huge wave caused by the displacement of water


there was a HUUUUGE tsunami over at japan some years ago.


this is the stuff you do NOT want to mess with. AT ALL.