Managerial Decision Making

Underneath self-actualization there are our other types of needs; esteem needs belongingness and love needs, safety needs, biological and psychological needs which he called Deficiency Needs. His theory was that if one of the needs were not met, the person would instantly feel the results, and if satisfied the person would not recognize it. The theory implies that people do not have the same level of needs and after the need is satisfied the person will move onto the next level.

Initially MasloWs theory was regarded as a psychological theory of motivation, drawing in the relation of the theoretical model. The model was selected by the organizational theorist McGregor, where the ierarchy of needs was converted and merged into applications in more than a few areas, mainly human resource management. However, when further analysis associated with Maslows hierarchy of needs theory was compiled it found that it was only suitable for the Middle Class.

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As a result Hogstede, discovered that some cultures that avoid high risk place the need for life above socialization and the need for self-actualization, undoing the initial hierarchy because it was found that the in Maslov,/s pyramid needs common with collective cultures such as harmony, family support were not presented. The Theory X and Theory Y, McGregor, 1 960 Two models Theory X and Theory Y, suggests that the behaviors of people would be essential in motivating employees to work hard. The theory is based on research that every organization should take into account that human potential will increase performance.

The two theories suggested to represent that there are two management styles that influence employees. Theory X represents the authoritarian style, which represents the need to control of everything, this style suggests that the managers are only interested in putting their needs above the organization which reduces mployee motivation. Theory Y, is different it suggests the manager puts trust in employees, by giving them responsibilities and allowing them to give be involved in decisions by expressing their ideas.

Herzberg (1 959; 2003) in his Hygiene/Motivation Theory Hygiene/Motivation Theory recognizes two kinds of need: “hygiene factors or extrinsic factors” and “motivators or intrinsic factors”. The hygiene factor is based off specifics such as pay, guidance, interpersonal relations, and working conditions. The specifics are important because if the employee’s needs related to them are not met then the employee will not be motivated, o they cannot be used as a form of motivation. Motivators are associated with recognition for work, responsibility and advancement will assist in attitude and performance by employees and will have a larger affect.

McClelland (1961; 1 988) proposes the three needs theory Based on Herzberg’s ideas, McClelland, proposes the three needs theory. The three needs theory suggests that all actions that guide people are learned, and that biological needs cannot be changed into an impulse if they do not relate to a specific indicators that signal their existence or nonexistence. The heory suggests that there are three motivational factors, organizations as being the place where professional performance will ensure the satisfaction of three needs, High need for achievement which represents the desire of getting something and doing something important.

High need for affiliation which expresses the desire for friendship, interpersonal relationships, that explains that the employees work best in an environment that is friendly and highly affiliated; high need for power, expresses the needs of people to be important and to have influence over people this type of employee should be n a management position. However according to the theory the need to excel is the highest motivator, people want to become successful, however they have a fear of failing; which is associated with small businesspersons who want to succeed and who are less interested in power or affiliation.

Expectancy Theory developed by Vroom (1964) Expectancy theory of motivation states that employee motivation represents a deliberate conscious choice to perform a task that will gain a reward. This theory suggests that people will be motivated by the type of reward they receive in return for their performance. Expectancy theory of motivation is a cognitive theory based on the concept of economic wisdom which suggests that people will make decisions based off highest benefit.

Conclusion Each theory suggests that there are different means to motivate employees today we use motivators that assist organizations to produce an outcome that will benefit both the Organization and employees, however there are a few theories that only motivate the managers self needs, and yet there are motivators that will recognize employees hard work and will reward them for it either way each describes in a way that pay is not the best form of otivation however cultural factors relating to what wages will do is a form of motivation.

Today we all use different types of motivators to accomplish a common goal and each form will serve a purpose, such as assembly line employees who do repetitive work might work better under stricter conditions and people working in sales and customer service might associate the end reward for doing well a form of motivation for them to succeed in their work. Either way all these theories suggest a form of management style that will serve a purpose. References de Colle, S. , & Werhane, P. H. (2008). Moral motivation across ethical theories: What can we learn for designing corporate ethics programs?