spheres of the earth
what’s happening now at a specific location
average weather at a location
study of climate
elements of weather & climate
-air temp
-air pressure
Boyle’s law
relation between pressure & volume given a constant temp
-increase in P, decrease in V
-decrease in P, increase in V
Charles’s law
relation between temp & volume given constant pressure
-increase in T, increase in V
-decrease in T, decrease in V
original atmosphere
-hydrogen compounds
second atmosphere
-water vapor (80%)
-carbon dioxide (10%)
-sulfur dioxide
-very little oxygen
*10-20 times more dense than today
earth cooled
-clouds formed
-rain fell
-oceans formed
-CO2 removed
–air -> water
–water -> rock
release of oxygen into atmosphere
-water vapor & UV -> oxygen gas & hydrogen gas
-light & CO2 gas -> biomass & oxygen
permanent gases
-nitrogen (78.08%)
-oxygen (20.95%)
-argon (0.93%)
-neon (0.0018%)
pressure changes
vertical (1mb per 10m)
horizontal (1mb per thousands of meters)
vertical structure of the atmosphere
temp decreases with increase height
temp increases with increase in height
temp decreases with increase in height
temp increases with increase in height
troposphere (good)
stratosphere (bad)
formation of ozone
1. oxygen + UV rays -> atomic oxygen
2. atomic oxygen + oxygen -> ozone
vertical variation in composition
homosphere (0-80km)
heterosphere (80+ km)
-molecular nitrogen
-atomic nitrogen
-atomic helium
-atomic hydrogen
rotation of the earth
counter clockwise
tilt to the earth
23.5 degrees
time to complete 1 revolution = 365 1/4 days
-orbit is elliptical
-closest to sun on Jan 3rd
major change in seasons
inclination of the earth’s axis
minor change in seasons
path length
angle of the sun
never directly overhead
astronomical seasons
specific dates
climatological seasons
how we see seasons
average kinetic energy of the individuals in a substance
process in which thermal energy is transferred between objects of different temp
mechanisms of energy transfer
energy transfer through matter by molecular energy
transfer of heat by mass movement in a substance
transfer of energy without the need for a medium of transfer
Wein’s displacement law
peak wavelength = C/T
Stefan – Boltzmann Law
energy = o * (t^4)
incoming ray hits a particle & scatters
incoming ray hits a particle & comes out at the same angle
incoming solar radiation
Rayleigh scattering
scattering of the short end of the spectrum in a random pattern
(sun at sunset)
Mie scattering
scattering by larger particles in a forward direction
(midday sun)
angle of incidence = angle of reflection
leads to greenhouse effect
greenhouse effect
-solar radiation is absorbed
-water vapor is the dominate gas
air temp data
-daily mean
-daily range
-monthly mean
-annual mean
-annual range
measurement must occur in the shade
-liquid in gas
-electrical – thermistor
lines of constant temp
wind chill facts
-temp of our sun doesn’t drop below air temp
-temp of inanimate objects won’t be impacted
controls of temp
-differential heating of land/water
-ocean currents
-geographic position
-cloud cover & albedo
transformation of water
solid -> ice
liquid -> water
gas -> vapor
differential heating of land/water
-depth of energy is transferred
-specific heat
specific heat
amount of energy required to change the temp of a material
ocean currents
prevailing westerly wind
-warm (NYC)
-cool (London)
Quito, Ecuador
-13.3 C annual mean temp
Guayaquil, Ecuador
geographic position
coastal vs continental
-vancouver vs winnipeg
coastal vs inland
-seattle vs spokane
leeward (toward water) vs windward (across water)
-new york vs cali
cloud cover vs albedo
1. 1/2 earth is covered with clouds
2. world distribution of temp
cloud cover during day
-increased albedo
-greater reflection to space
-lower high temp
cloud cover during night
-cloud cover absorbs & reradiates to earth
-higher night time temp
world distribution of temp
-diff heating of land/water
-ocean currents
-geographic position
cycles of air temp
-daily max: 2-5pm
-daily min: sunrise
-radiation balance is the key to temp change