Mid Term Review

(chlorofluorocarbons) thins the ozone layer and contains chlorine, fluorine, and carbon
the scientific study of the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomena; the study of weather and climate
transfer of energy in the form of waves
Greenhouse Effect
trapping of the sun’s energy the Earth in the lower atmospherecaused by the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and adds c02 into the airwarming effect may melt glacier and raise sea levels
lines on a map that connect places that have the same temperature
 layer of the atmosphere closes to the Earth where weather happenstemperature decreases
  second layer of the atmosphere where airplanes fly; where the ozone layer is temperate remains constant to height of 20 kilometers
third layer of the atmospherewhere meteors burn uptemperature decreases
outmost layer of the atmosphere where auroras happen  temperature increases
Describe a windward coast and a leeward coast
 A windward coast will experience the full moderating influence of the ocean and cool summers and mild winters. A leeward coast will have a more continental temperature pattern because winds don’t have to carry th ocean’s influence onshore
Describe land and water heating and cooling patterns
Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperature than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water.
What is an Air pollutantWhat accounts for nearly half of all air pollution
airborne particles ad gases that occur in concentrations large enough to endanger the environment  emissions from transportation vehicles account for nearly half of the primary pollutant
What gas is most abundant in the AtmosphereWhat gas is second most abundant in the AtmosphereWhat other gasses are in the Atmosphere
Nitrogen (N) – 78% Oxygen (O) -21% H2O vapor, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and Argon (A)
Relative HumidityWhat is the equation for finding it
the % of moisture the air can hold relative to the amount it can hold at a certain temperature (specific humidity/ capacity or saturated) times 100
from liquid H2O to H2O vapor and absorbs heat
water that falls from the atmosphere to the earth occurs when cloud droplets grow into heavy enough drops to fall to Earth
Acid Precipitation
 acid drops that fall to the groundcontains nitrate and sulfate that comes from burning fuels, volcanoes, and cars 
Dew Point
the temperature at which water vapor condenses dew, clouds, and fog forms if dew point is below freezing, frost forms
thin, feathery, made of ice crystals forms at high altitude seen when weather is fair but can mean rain or snow “curl of hair”
low sheet or layers; grey and smooth blocks out the sun associated with rain and drizzle
piled in thick, puffy masses usually means fair weather “a pile”
large cloud that produces lightning, thunder, heavy showers Thunderstorms
Rain drops
larger than fine dropped drizzle, .6 to 5 mm in diameter
pellets of ice that falls to the ground when raindrops fall through freezing air
falls in clumps of six sided crystals
forming in cumulonimbus clouds and irregular balls or clumps
Coriolis Effect
deflection of winds and ocean currents caused by the Earth’s rotation;winds in N.

Hemisphere flow to the rightwinds in S. Hemisphere flow to the left

instrument that measures wind speed
lines that in points on a map having the same air pressures;falling barometer- warmer weather, humid with rain and snowrising barometer cooler weather and drizzle
El Nino
name given to periodic warming of ocean that occurs in central and eastern pacificat irregular intervals of 3-7 years, warm counter currents become strong and replace normally cold offshore waters with warm equatorial waterscan cause extreme weather
La Nina
when surface temperatures in eastern Pacific are colder than average, a La Nina event is triggered that has a distinctive set of weather patterns
Air Pressure
pressure that the air exerts on the Earth;directed equally in all directionsdifferences in air pressure causes Earth’s winds and weather changesair pressure is affected by temperature, water vapor, and elevation
Jet Streams
narrow belts of strong, high speed air 10-15 km closely related to weather
Sea Breeze
flow of cool air from water to land during the day and sun’s energy heats the surface
What are Low Pressure Centers calledDescribe
Low pressure centers are called “cyclones.” Pressure decreases towards center. Wind blows inward and counterclockwise in N. hemisphere. Rising air and hot is associated with cloud formation and precipitation
What are High Pressure Centers calledDescribe
High pressure centers are called “anticyclones.

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” pressure increases toward center. Winds blow outward and clockwise in N. hemisphere. Sinking air produces clear skies

Air Mass
an immense body of air that is characterized by similar temperatures and amounts of moistures at any given altitude
a boundary that separates two air masses when two air masses meet
an instrument that is carried aloft by a balloon to send back information on atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity by means of a small radio transmitter
Saffir- Simpson Scale
measures the intensity of a hurricane from 1 to 5 with 5 at the highest
a tropical cyclone or hurricane of the western Pacific area and the Chinese seas
Storm Surges
a dome of water about 65 to 80 kilometers wide that sweeps across the coast where hurricane’s eye moves onto lands
What is a Maritime Polar
forms over water and likely to be humid, and forms at high latitudes towards Earth’s poles and are cold
What is a Continental Tropical
forms over land and are likely to be dry and forms at low latitudes and are warm
What is a Maritime Tropical
forms over water and likely to  be humid, and forms at low latitudes and are warm
What is a Continental Polar
forms over land and are likely to be dry and forms at high latitudes towards Earth’s poles and are cold
How are air masses classified
In an addition to their overall temperature, air masses are classified according to the surface over which they form.

  Polar and tropical describe the temperature characteristics of an air mass which continental and maritime describe the moisture characteristics of the air mass

Warm Front
a warm front forms when warm air moves into an area formerly covered by cooler air    red semi circles
Cold Front
a cold front forms when cold, dense air moves into a region occupied by warmer air    blue triangles
Stationary Front
surface position of a front, when the flow of air on either side is not cold or warm, doesn’t move and a stationary front forms    red semi circles on one side and blue triangles on the other side
Occluded Front
an active cold front overtakes a warm front, an occluded front forms    Purple triangles and semi circles
Describle Pressure within Hurricanes  Describe Pressure within Tornadoes
In a Hurricane pressure starts low in small storms and gets higher up into 73 and up pressure as the storm reaches a tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane Pressure within some tornadoes has been estimated to be as much as 10 percent lower than pressure immediately outside the storm. The low pressure within a tornado causes air near the ground to rush into a tornado from all directions 
Plate Tectonics
 theory that helps explain the formation and movements of these plates
outer shell of the Earth made of crust and mantle
layer within mantle that lithosphere plates rest on where convection currents are rising: new material moves to Earth’s surface, pushes older material aside, pushes mantle up, lithosphere plates move apart where cooler denser currents are sinking: lithosphere plates are pulled together and a trench is formed
Convergent boundaries
place where two plates come together
Divergent boundaries
place where two lithospheric plates are moving apart
Transform Fault Boundaries
lithosphere plates are sliding past one another
formed 200 million years ago, all continents were connected to form a supercontinent
break or crack along which rocks more and caused by stress
Continental to Continental Convergence (Collision)
two continental plates collide, they become crumple and uplifted and form mountain ranges
Subduction Zone
forms when an ocean plate and continental plate collide, ocean plate will slide under continental plate, forms deep ocean trench
Evidence of Continental Drift
1. Continental Puzzle 2. Fossils 3. Geological 4.

Climatic and Glacial Evidence

San Andreas Fault
a break or crack in the Earth’s crust along which movements have occurred
Describle a Normal Fault
hanging wall moves down relative to the foot wall
Describe a Reverse Fault
hanging wall moves down up to the foot wall
 triggered by an earthquakes, occurs where ocean floor is displaced
Epi Centers
point on Earth’s surface directly above the focussite of most violent shaking
instruments that detect and measure seismic waves
(pyroclastic material) solid fragments ejected from a volcanoash (less than 2 mm)lapilli (less than 64 mm)bombsblock  
Shield Volcanos
composed of quiet lava flowsform gently sloping, dome shaped mountainbasaltic (mafic) magmalargest is Mauna Loa in Hawaii
Cinder Cone Volcano
made mostly of tehpra and other rock particlesformed from explosive eruptionsnot very high, narrow base with steep sides
Composite Volcano(Stratovolcano)
built up of alternating layers of rock and lavaexplosive eruptions at first with tehpra then quiet with lavaforms large cone shaped mountainsmade of granitic and basaltic magma
 funnel shaped pit or depression at top of volcano
largest igneous intrusionsform when huge bodies of magma cools undergroundcover 1000 km
point beneath the Earth’s surface the rocks break or move apartpoint on fault plane where first movements occur
sheet of hardened magma that forms between and parallel to layers of rocks
Pacific Ring of Fire
major earthquake zone that forms ring around the Pacific Ocean
Name 4 Sites of Volcanic and Earthquake Activity
Mid- ocean ridge occurs where plates are moving apart and lava flows out smoothly and fluidly from cracksSubduction zones occurs at subduction boundaries and are usually explosive and erupted material is mostly lavaHot spots are area of volcanic activity in the middle of a lithosphere plates and Hawaiian islands are an exampleThe Pacific Ring of Fire is a major earthquake an volcano zone that forms ring around the Pacific Ocean
What affects lava flow
Viscosity or the substances resistance to flow and Dissolved gasses affect how slow or fast lava flows. If it is fluid like that its silent, gaseous eruptions are loud. Silica and temperature affect viscosity
How do Dissolved Gases affect Magma
Magma contains dissolved gasses that are given off and contain water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfurMagma with more gases has explosive eruptions
L Waves (Surface Waves)
make homes shakemoves slowestmove like ripples on a pond
P Waves (Primary Waves)(used to measure)
measures quickestmoves fasterback and forth and push and pull wavesmoves through solid, liquid, or gas
S Waves (Secondary Waves)
travel slowlymove side to sidetravel through solid
How many stations do you need in order to determine the Epicenter
You need distance from 3 different stations in order to determine location
way a mineral shines in reflected light
Regional Metamorphism
occurs when rocks are buried deep beneath Earth’s surface and changed by increase temperature and pressure covers large area
resistance to being scratched
Contact Metamorphism
occurs when rocks are heated by contact with magma or lavacovers a small area
color of a mineral’s powder form and is usually not the same color as the mineral
Foliated Texture
mineral crystals arranged in parallel layers or bands (flatten under pressure)
some sediments are joined together, or cemented by minerals dissolve in water
pressure placed on sediment on sediment layers caused them to change rock
light colored, thick and slow flowing, rick in silica, forms underground
dark colored, very fluid and fast flowing, low in silica, forms above ground
Intrusive Rock
formed from magma deep within the Earthcools slowly, has large crystalscoarse grained
Extrusive Rock
formed from lava at Earth’s surfacecools quickly, has small crystalsfine grained
What must all Minerals be
All minerals are inorganic, always a crystalline solid, definite chemical composition, and over 2,000 are known
How are Igneous Rocks formed
Igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and hardens
How is Sedimentary Rock formed
Sedimentary rocks are made by mud, sand, gravel, and shells and the sediments are moved by wind and water Pressure is placed on it and they change and then joined together by dissolved in water this forms layers called strata
How is Metamorphic Rock formed
formed by rocks being heated by magma or lava or buried deep beneath Earth’s surface and changed by increase temperatures and pressure
How do you find Density
Mass over volume will determine the density of a rock
What is a Conflomerate Rock
Conglomerates are a Clastic, or formed by broken pieces or fragments of rock, Sedimentary Rock It is formed by rounded pebbles or clumps of clay, mud or sand carried by water
What makes Sedimentary Rock Unique
Sedimentary rocks form layers  They usually are formed in water and have ripple marks or mud cracks Fossils are often preserved in sedimentary rocksIt is classified according to compositions, texture, or grain size
What is in the center of a Hurricane that is calm
What does light traveling faster than sound prove
Lightning before thunder
Lithosphere is made of this
Horizontal is Vertical is
layers piles
Crystalline solid
Minerals arranged due to atoms
What do Minerals need What defines Sedimentary Rock
Carbon Layers