Midterm 2 Notes

gully erosion
Gully erosion is the removal of soil along drainage lines by surface water runoff. Gully erosion occurs when water is channelled across unprotected land and washes away the soil along the drainage lines.
rill erosion
Rill erosion is the removal of soil by concentrated water running through little streamlets, or headcuts.
sheet erosion
Sheet erosion is the process by which transportation of soil particles begins. Sheet erosion occurs as runoff travels over disturbed ground, picking up and transporting particles dislodged by splash erosion. The process of sheet erosion is gradual, and difficult to detect until it develops into rill erosion. The potential for sheet erosion is dependent on the soil type, velocity, and quantity of flow over the surface. Long slopes, steep slopes, and slopes that carry higher volumes of runoff are more susceptible to sheet erosion
organic matter
Organic matter (or organic material) is matter that has come from a once-living organism; is capable of decay, or the product of decay; or is composed of organic compounds
biocide
A biocide is a chemical substance or microorganism which can deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
Conservation tillage
Conservation tillage is any method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous year’s crop residue (such as corn stalks or wheat stubble) on fields before and after planting the next crop, to reduce soil erosion and runoff.
no till conservation tillage
No-till and strip-till involve planting crops directly into residue that either hasn’t been tilled at all (no-till) or has been tilled only in narrow strips with the rest of the field left untilled (strip-till).
Contour plowing/cultivation
Contour plowing (or contour ploughing) or contour farming is the farming practice of plowing across a slope following its elevation contour lines.
integrated pest management
Integrated pest management (IPM) is an integrated approach of crop management to solve ecological problems when applied in agriculture.
These methods are performed in three stages: prevention, observation, and intervention. It is an ecological approach with a main goal of significantly reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides while at the same time managing pest populations at an acceptable level
organic
Of, relating to, or derived from living matter
5 factors of soil formation
1. Parent Material 2. Climate 3. Living Organisms 4. Topography 5. Time
rogue wave
a big, monstrous wave but not as big as a tsunami
pyroclastic flow
a fast moving current of extremely hot gas and rock, moving out of a volcano
Lituya Bay
an earthquake caused a landslide causing a megatsunami (largest in history)
volcanic hazard
A volcanic hazard refers to any potentially dangerous volcanic process (e.g. lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash).
primary pollutant
those released directly from the source into the air in a harmful form
secondary erosion
these are modified to a hazardous form after they enter the air or are formed by chemical reactions as components of the air mix and interact
fugitive emissions
those that do not go through a smoke stack (and become discharged). Examples include strip mining, dust from soil erosion
criteria pollutants
seven major pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, photochemical oxidants, and lead)
polar vortex
An atmospheric condition that occurs during the polar winter night when the Antarctic air mass is partially isolated from the rest of the atmosphere and circulates around the pole.
inversion layer
In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude. It almost always refers to a temperature inversion, i.e. an increase in temperature with height, or to the layer (inversion layer) within which such an increase occurs. An inversion can lead to pollution such as smog being trapped close to the ground, with possible adverse effects on health
ozone damage
Damage to stratospheric ozone is caused principally by Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They interact with ozone in the presence of ultraviolet light and destroy ozone’s filtering capacity.