Midterm Vocab Review Ch 1-2

condition in which people cannot meet their basic needs (adequate food, clothing, shelter, education, health). living on <$2 a day
Highly Developed countries
countries with complex industrial bases, low rates of populations growth, high GDH
Highly Developed countries
countries with complex industrial bases, low rates of populations growth, high GDH
Moderately devoloped countries
medium level of industrialization, avg. per capita income lower than HDC’s
less developed countries
low industrialization, high fertility, high infant mortality, low GDP per capita
people overpopulation
situation where there are too many people in a given geographic area
consumption overpopulation
situation when each individual consumes more than their share of resources
3 most important factors determining human impact on the environment
1.) how much is consumed
2.)amount of people
3.)waste given off


Environmental sustainability
ability to meet humanity’s needs w/o compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs
George Perkins Marsh
farmer/linguist/diplomat. wrote Man and Nature discussing humans as agents for environmental change for 1st time
Theodore Roosevelt
17.4mil hectares of forest in west out of reach of loggers
Gifford Pinchot
first head of U.S. Forest Service–> utilitarian conservationisht
John Muir
preservationist. founded Sierra Club (conservation organization that is still active)
Aldo Leopold
wildlife biologist, visionary, supported acts that taxed hunting weapons and funded wildlief research. argued for land ethics
Wallace Stegner
“Wilderness Essay”: written to commission conducting inventory of the wild
Rachel Carson
“Silent Spring” marine biologist, preservationist
Paul Ehrlich
“Population Bomb” what to do about overpopulation
Imporatance of National Environmental Policy Act
gov must consider the environmental impact of a proposed federal action
Environmental Impact Statements
accompany every federal recommendation or proposal for legislation. Help officials make informed decisions.
Natural Capital
all of Earth’s resources and processes that sustain living organizms, includes minerals, forests, soil, water, air, wildlife,fisheries and humans. Depletion or pollution of these can seriously affect our future’s economy
Why National income accounts are incomplete
-do not incorporate environmental factors
>natural resource depletion
>cost and benefits of pollution control
Marginal Cost of Pollution abatement
added cost for all present and future members of society of reducing one unit of a given type of pollution (graph slopes negatively)
Optimum amount of pollution
amount of pollution that is economically most desirable (intersection of 2 graphs)
Marginal cost of pollution
added cost for all present and future members of society of an additional unit of pollution (graph slopes positively)
Command and Control Regulations
pollution-control laws that work by setting limits on levels of pollution (Clean Air Act)
Incentive-based regulation
pollution control laws that work by establishing emission targets and providing industries with incentives to reduce emissions
Environmental ethics
a field of applied ethics that considers the moral basis of responsibility and how far this responsibility extends
Environmental world-view
worldview that helps us make sense of how the environment works, our place in the environment and right and wrong environmental behaviors
western worldview
understanding of our place in the world based on human superiority and dominance over nature, unrestricted use of natural resources and increased economic growth to manage an expanding industrial base