Predictions of how much greenhouse gas will be emitted into the atmosphere each year from human activities.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced by an economy – total emissions by a society are basically set by that society’s GDP.
How much greenhouse gas is emitted for every dollar of consumption.
IPAT Relation (Kaya Identity)
The equation I = PATI = total emissions of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere (climate Impacts)P = PopulationA = Affluence (GDP per person)T = Greenhouse-gas intensity
The number of joules of energy it takes to generate 1 dollar of goods and services (features as “EI” in the equation T = EI x CI)
The amount of greenhouse gas emitted per joule of energy generated (features as “CI” in the equation T = EI x CI)
T = EI x CI
Greenhouse-gas intensity (T) is the product of energy intensity (EI) and carbon intensity (CI). Energy intensity reflects the efficiency with which the society uses energy as well as the mix of economic activities in the society. The carbon intensity reflects the technologies the society uses to generate energy.
Putting these emission scenarios into a climate model yields predictions of warming over the 21st century of 1.8 – 3.
6 degrees C; several times the warming of .7 degC over the course of the 20th century.
Responding to the negative impacts of climate change.
Policies that avoid climate change in the first place, thereby preventing impacts such as sea-level rise from occurring.
Active manipulation of the climate system. Under this approach, our society would continue adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but we would intentionally change some other aspect of the climate in order to cancel the warming effects of the greenhouse gases.
Energy sources which are not depleted when utilized – i.e. hydroelectric, solar, wind, and biomass energy
Carbon-free, Climate-safe energy sources
Energy sources which do not release greenhouse gases – i.e. nuclear energy, carbon capture and sequestration, and renewable energy sources.
The most common form of solar energy utilizing solar panels.
Uses mirrors to concentrate sunlight ona working fluid (such as oil, molten salt, or pressurized steam), heating it to several hundred degrees Celsius.
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