Modernism . Sigmund Freud implemented the themes of

Modernism is a period in the early 20th century in which society suppressed renaissance thoughts and adopted a rebellious attitude towards conservative affairs. Sexuality, and uncovering the unconscious sector of the mind became a prominent concept within society. It idealized the unveiling of self consciousness and comprehending one’s will. It contradicted the prior era’s gothic themes and fixated on discerning between the rational and irrational of society through inquiry and doubt . Sigmund Freud implemented the themes of modernism within his work to decipher individuals’ dispositions and frame of mind. By introducing contemporary phenomenons to the field of psychology in the Modernism period, Sigmund Freud enlightened the scientific world with innovative theories and evolved the perspective in which society viewed psychoanalysis and the cognitive processes of the mind. Freud’s newfangled theories on the state of mind and its complex developments have led to an aggrandized view of the scientific method and its viable outlooks. The Oedipus complex and the contrasting segments of the unconscious mind were trivial works that aided in elucidating the irrational. Freud’s movement away from the perceptions of “strict determinists” and interpretations which are based upon the chemistry of the brain such as chemical signals and biology resulted in the formation of psychoanalysis (“How Freud Shaped…”, 1). It took a new direction in contrast to the thoughts of the renaissance period which determined neurotic symptoms and slips as anomalies to the natural state of being. Ergo, Freud’s theories emerge as the fundamental concepts in interpreting such behavior. His most revered works include the Oedipus complex in which a  child stigmatizes and develops enmity toward the opposite sex parent as they are recognized as a rival to the love and affection of the same sex parent. Freud also develops the idea that women at a young age discern the difference between them and men being that they are biologically inferior. Hence, they feel penis envy while men fear castration. From his work, Freud enlightened the public in allowing one to acknowledge the omnipresence of sexuality in day to day life. This sharply juxtaposed with the Victorian era in which sexuality was a conservative subject. In addition to expanding the limits of sexuality, Freud’s work gave utmost importance to the augmentation of the mind to include the dynamic unconsciousness present in the implicit processes of the mind. He contends that one’s actions and decisions are hinged on the ego, superego and id rather than the conscious mind. The id is driven by “our primitive need-gratification thoughts and the superego represents our socially induced conscience and counteracts the id with moral and ethical thoughts” (Martin 1). The ego provides the rationale and counterbalances the opposite ends. His theories are representative of the modernist themes present in society including self-consciousness yet ambiguity.  His utilization of the subconscious sheds light on the foundation for one’s demeanor and his modern interpretations to the exhausted study of the mind provided a new outlet to professionals in diagnosing illnesses. However, it drives for further explanations from psychology rather than the science.By inaugurating the hypocrisy ridden 19th century to his dominant theology of embracing humanity’s irrational motives and impulses behind human thought and behavior, Freud thrust the rigid mindset of society towards the mental enlightenment offered by the Modernist period. The monumental change that Freud’s theories brought to the new era not only liberated mankind from the unrelenting societal boundaries, but also altered the way an average man could now perceive his own internal existence: through the lens of newfound darkness. By discovering a world of dynamic, juxtaposing forces, which were composed of “…desire, instinct, dream, association, neurosis, repression, and repetition…,” Freud lent society a new scope to view the repressed cognitive processes (Terdiman 94). The complex theory of unconsciousness further unveiled this phenomenon by illustrating how slips of the tongue also classified as freudian slips are external manifestations of unconscious motives. Freud’s introduction of psychoanalysis into the scientific sector of psychiatry offered new methods  to expose mental causes by simple introspection. Ergo, this contemporary innovation was integrated into official therapeutic practices in the Modernist period to worked towards eradicating  limits on the depth to which the human psyche could be inspected; by venturing towards discovering newfangled  aspects in the in the cognitive processes of the human mind, mental processes were allowed  “…to be seen as mentally or physically determined by creating this new category…” of experimental treatment  (“How Freud Shaped…”, 1). Latterly, early writers in the Enlightened period, who were battling the permeating disillusionment of World War 1, implemented the concept of capricious narrators and psychic insight, therefore breaking the implicit standard with which general audiences were granted “…reliable interpreters and representatives of…bourgeois culture and ideas” in literature (Kreis). In this radical change in literary styles, Modernist authors such as “…Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Marcel Proust (1871-1922), D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930), and James Joyce (1882-1941) explored the inner, psychic life of the individual… ” and delved into giving insight to readers upon Freud’s theories of the stream of consciousness, interior monologue, and internal voices which essentially guide humanity (Forrester 1912). In spite of the extensive revolutionization of the Modernist era, Freud’s principles of penis envy led to a setback in the women’s movement. He justified his concepts through biological means, alleging that women were castrated and inferior to the patriarchy governing mankind.