Most or heavy good vehicles to assist them

Most of people are not excluded in having cars,
motorcycles and other vehicles either light or heavy good vehicles to assist them
reaching destination.  However, for those
who spend large amount of time at roadways either the major roads or highways,
including commuters are highly exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP).
This is because concentrations of air pollutants associated with traffic such
as nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and emissions of fine particulate
matter which is PM2.5 are extremely high there. If citizens live
within 100m from the major road or 500m from highways, they also categorized in
having exposure to TRAP especially when most time was spent at home. Persons
who commute on or near major roads and highways, whether in their own vehicle,
via public transit, or through active transport, are exposed to higher
concentrations of TRAP. Although walking or cycling along major routes are active
transport, they also leads to higher exposure to TRAP,
exacerbated by exercised-induced increased respiration.

affecting TRAP concentrations include distance from the road, traffic-related
factors, meteorology, the built environment and topography.  Traffic-related
factors are traffic speed, traffic volume and the proportion of older vehicles
and heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses on the roadway. Usage of diesel
fuels in trucks and buses release much higher amounts of particulate matter per
distance travelled compared to light-duty gasoline vehicles such as cars which
then contribute more to emissions of PM2.5 and NO. Meteorological
factors include wind direction, wind speed, precipitation and solar radiation.
For instance, air pollution levels upwind of roads decrease much faster
compared to levels downwind. Built environment factors include the presence of
‘street canyons’ which defines as streets with tall buildings in continuous
rows alongside them. The presence of street canyons prevents the dispersal of
TRAP, resulting in higher concentrations of pollutants along roads. Meanwhile, topographical
factors include land surface characteristics, such as whether roads are
surrounded by open land or ridges.

TRAP exposure impacts children, seniors, and people with pre-existing health
condition badly especially when it cause an onset and worsening asthma in
children. Another health risks associated with TRAP are cardiovascular
mortality, cardiovascular disease, the onset of asthma in adults, respiratory
symptoms in adults, decreased lung function in people of all ages and lung

Eliminating all traffic-related air pollution is not
possible, so the only options left are actions to be taken by policy makers,
health professionals and individuals to reduce exposures and the associated
health risks.  Awareness about the health
risks from exposure to TRAP, especially for sensitive populations should be
increased as changes must be start within ourselves if we want to have healthy
body. It is advisable to include buffer zones between major traffic arteries
and homes, daycares, schools, and long-term care facilities when planning land
use. Furthermore, walking and cycling corridors should be built away from major
traffic arteries in order the active lifestyle is not being affected by the
TRAP. We also must secure ourselves by reducing short time near major roads,
particularly during rush hour and when exercising.