NRS 100- 2nd test

Charismatic Mega Vertebrae
Malthus vs Marx
Human population needs to be check vs social justice to alleviate exploitation and oppression is the only way to solve population problem.
When was the Endangered Species Act created?
3 types of erosion
Sheet erosion: surface water or wind peel off thin layers of soil
Rill erosion: water cuts small channels
Gully erosion: water cuts deeper dikes and gullies
1960 Multiple use Sustained Act
have to manage national forests for timber production, watershed management, wildlife habitat preservation and recreation
(Forest service skewed management priorities)
4 types of forest cutting
High grading-going and harvesting the best trees in a stand
Selective cutting- only some trees are cut in a stand (should take the garbage ones, not the best ones)
Clear cutting- cutting all the trees in a stand
Strip cutting- cut strips of trees in a stand
encouraging stump sprouts
seed tree
leaving a few mature trees to become seeders for the next generation
First National Park and when?
Yellowstone in 1872.
CITES and Apendixes
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
I-endangered animals
II- threatened animals
III- animals the country has asked to be on the list
US energy percentages
Coal- 23%
Natural Gas- 23%
Nuclear power- 8%
Renewable- 7%
World energy percentages
Coal- 22%
Natural Gas- 21%
Nuclear power- 6%
Renewable- 18%
OPEC & it’s 13 countries
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries- Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
How many acres are need to support the US lifestyle?
5 acres
2 major diseases associated with malnutrition?
Iodine deficiency (Goiter) and Iron deficiency (Anemic)
Demographic transition
As countries become industrialized first their death rates and then their birth rates decline. 4 stages: Postindustrial, Transitional, Industrial, Post Industrial
Passive vs Active solar heating
Absorbs and stores heat from the sun directly with a well-insulated structure without the need for pumps or fans. Vs absorbing energy from the sun by pumping a heat-absorbing fluid through special collectors usually mounted on a roof or on special racks to face the sun. Some used directly while the rest is stored in an insulated container to be used as needed.
Oil Sand
Composed of a sticky, heavy oil called bitumen.
Shale Oil
Solid combustible Kerogen
Evolution of Coal
Peat (not coal) > Lignite (brown coal) > Bituminous (soft coal) > Antracite (hard coal)
Goes from more moisture and volatiles to more carbon.
Pielou’s Equation
P(E) – (d/b)No

relative measure of the probability of a population going extinct over a long period of time.
d/b are instantaneous rates
No-starting population

Doubling Formula
70/% in whole numbers
Urban growth
pulled by promise of jobs, food, housing, educational opportunities, better health care, entertainment, and freedom from religious, racial, political conflicts. Pushed by poverty, lack of land for growing food, declining agricultural jobs, famine and war.
How much wilderness is protected? How much is recommended?
4% is protected and 20% is recommended.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional Oil
Ample supply for 42-93 years, low cost, high net energy yield, easily transported within and between countries, low land use, technology well developed and efficient distribution system. Vs. Need to find substitutes, large government subsidies, environmental costs not included in market price, artificially low price encourages waste and discourages alternatives, pollutes air, releases CO2 and causes water pollution.
What’s special about Curitiba, Brazil?
It’s an ecocity. cars are banned, recycles a lot, uses great mondern bus transport, poor can exchange garbage for food and other supplies are given health benefits and encouraged to build themselves up. High pollution standards. Bottom apartments are stores.
Ideal Pesticide
Kills only the target pest, does not cause genetic resistance, disappears or breakdown into something harmless after doing it’s job, is cost-effective to use.
US highest TFR
3.5 during the baby boom, now down to about 2.1
How long can coal last?
225 to 900 years
Total cost of electricity from different sources
Solar cells, Coal, natural gas, nuclear, biomass, hydropower, geothermal and wind.
(Highest to Lowest)
Crude Oil reserves in Alaska could last for?
7 to 24 months.
City Micro-climate
reradiates heat, produces heat, stops wind from entering city (Heat islands), temperature extremes less severe (daytime shading and nightime reradiation)
Orographic effect (domes of warm air over a city force moisture-laden clouds upwards triggering rain) Dust domes trap pollutants, causes disease and degradation.
Big Natural Gas reserves?
Russia, Iran, Qatar