NRS- Post 3rd test/final cards

When is water most dense?
4 degrees C!
Humidity
amount of water vapor in the air
Saturation Point
When a certain volume of air is saturated. Depends on Temperature.
Relative Humidity
Amount of water vapor described as a % of the max humidity. Also depends on Temp.
Dew point
temperature at which condensation occurs for a give amount of water.
unconfined vs confined aquifer
Local recharge vs possibly very distance recharge.
What 3 principle factors control global water surpluses and deficits?
Global atmospheric circulation, prevailing winds, and topography!
Break down water percentages in terms of what’s stored as what and then what is available for us?
97.6% oceans. 2.4% freshwater. 1.97% of that is frozen. .03% of that is available for human use!
How many Americans drink water that does not meet the EPAs standards?
5.6 million!
When was the clean water act created?
1972
1977 amendment to the clean water act
No discharging into navigable waters without a permit, created funds for sewage treatment plants and recognized the importance of non-point source pollution!
How much of the CWA’s money comes from where?
54 billion from FEDS and 128 billion from state and local.
What does section 404 of the clean water act say?
You can’t drain or fill a wetland. (is that legal?)
CECLA stands for? when was it created?
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act. in 1980.
SARA
Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act in 1984.
Name two agreements between governments to reduce water pollution?
great lake water quality agreement in 1972 between US and Canada. And London dumping convention in 1990 to stop ocean dumping by 1995.
Name some countries they have lots of refillable containers?
Denmark, Finland and Germany.
Solid Waste
Any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not a liquid of a gas.
Municipal vs Industrial Solid Waste
Produced by homes vs produced by industries.
Hazardous (toxic) waste
threatens human health or the environment because it is toxic, chemically active, corrosive or flammable.
What should be the 3 top priorities for solid and hazardous wastes?
1st: Primary pollution and waste prevention. 2nd: Secondary pollution and waste prevention. 3rd: waste management.
Unfortunately we often rely heavily on the 3rd method only. Look up more about all 3 in the textbook!
Name the 5 Rs
Refuse, Reduce, reuse, re-purpose and recycle
refuse
don’t buy something unless you need it!
Close loop vs secondary recycling
Used again for the same purpose vs used for something new!
What is the average residency time for water in the ocean?
3000 years!
What are the largest reserves of freshwater?
Ice and then ground water and then land water?
Water table is
the top of the zone of saturation
Lake and Pond definition
Lake- inland depression that has FW year around. Pond- shallow and small enough for rooted plants to for no most of it’s bottom.
Atmosphere
Is the smallest FW reserve and has the fastest turnover!
How much water from rivers and streams can we store?
1/3. The rest is in floods that are too violent for us!
Every continent has a drought cycle, how long is ours?
30 years
Withdrawal
Total amount of water taken from a source
Consumption
fraction of withdrawed water that is the made unavaliable for other purposes.
How much water does the average US citizen use a day?
1400 gallons!
degradation of water
change in water quality due to contamination making it unsuitable for a desired purpose!
What 2 tests are commonly done for groundwater?
E-coli and nitrates!
Ground water is the source of nearly what percent of FW in the US?
40%
Ogallala Aquifer
critically important for US food production. Has no discharge because it’s fossil water. 2/5ths is gone and it has fallen over 100 ft since 1940!
Ways to increase water supplies?
Cloud seeding (steels from others), iceberg towing, and desalination.
Monolake
700,000 years old. use ot be 60 times larger. 1/3 has been diverted for human use. No outlet makes it naturally salty and alkaline. Finally protected in 1994.
What is water pollution?
any chemical, biological or physical change in water quality that has a harmful affect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for a desired use!
Main physical properties of water?
Color, smell, taste, temperature, turbidity (measured with a seci disc!)
Chemical properties of water?
DO- dissolved oxygen and pH.
Biological properties of water?
BOD- biological oxygen demand, plant and animal species present.
what is the main source of waterborne pathogens?
improperly treated human wastes!
What are the main sources of water pollution?
Infectious agents, inorganic pollutants, nonmetallic salts, acids/bases, organic chemicals, sediment and thermal pollution.
Dioxins
by products of creating plant toxins and agent orange- is really nasty!
What important EPA development happened in 1998?
The EPA switched regulatory approaches to shift focus on monitoring and protecting watersheds.
Who in the US relies on groundwater?
1/2 US population and 95% of rural residents rely on groundwater
What is MTBE
a really terrible for your health gasoline additive!
What is the oxygen sag curve?
Look up! But basically pollution makes BOD increased and the DO goes down and then BOD goes down as DO slowly increases and everything returns to normal.
Cultural Eutrophication
plant nutrient inputs that are greatly accelerated!
How long does it take marine life to recover from oil?
3 years for crude and 10 to 20 years for refine oil!
Primary sewage treatment
a physical process that uses screens and girt tank to remove large floating objects and allow settling.
secondary sewage treatment
a biological process that uses aerobic bacterial to remove as much as 90% of dissolved and biodegradable oxygen demanding organic wastes!
Sanitary landfills
Solid wastes are spread out in thin layers and compacted and covered daily to reduce smell and contamination.
2 biggest sources of hazardous wastes?
organic compounds and heavy chemicals
Why are pay as you throw programs good?
They encourage waste separation and recycling.
RCRA stands for?
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act- cradle to grave system of waste tracking!
Phyiscal hazard remediation?
Charcoal or resins separate out toxins
bio remediation
bacteria or enzymes help destroy toxic and hazardous waste or at least make them more benign.
chemical hazard remediation?
uses chemical reactions
phytochemicalremediation
natural/gmo plants to absorb, filter and remove contaminants from polluted soil or water.
Processes of air pollution?
Attrition- rubber worn off tires as particular matter in the air and environment, vaporization and combustion!
Fugitive pollutants
do not go through the smokestack, sneak out other ways!
Jet pollutants
pollutants from combustion?
SPM
suspended particular matter
what SPMs are fine and ultrafine?
less than 10 and less than 2.5!
Brown air vs Grey air cities?
worst in summer-caused by NO2 (secondary pollution) vs worst in winter caused by particulate matter.
Subsidence inversion
temp inversion caused by low pressure systems
topographic inversion
caused by a valley usually.
What is more harmful to human health indoor or outdoor air pollution?
Indoor pollution!
What is Ethics?
a branch of philosophy that defines what is fundamentally right and wrong, regardless of cultural or time differences.
Morals
Ethics that are filtered by society. They reflect the predominant attitudes and feelings of a culture about ethical issues.
Albert Schweitzer
Schweitzer’s passionate quest was to discover a universal ethical philosophy, anchored in a universal reality, and make it directly available to all of humanity. Also said don’t take a life unless necessary. Was a humanitarian and life advocate.
Eco groups
ALF, PETA, Earth First, ecofeminism
Upsides to hunting?
Can be more ethical, keeps population in check (keeps animals from starving), is al’ natural!