NV APES – Living World

Climax Community
Community dominated by few long living plant species in balance with the environment.
Pioneer Species
First part of the succession process when a plant attaches to bare rock and later decomposition forms the first layer of soil.
Indicator Species
Species that serve as early warnings of damage to ecological communities.
Foundation Species
Create and enhance the habitats in ways that benefit other species.
Keystone Species
Species that play a key role in any ecosystem, their removal would induce great environmental damage