observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time
Gradual growth of organisms in an area that was previously bare, such as rock. (i.e: lichens, mosses, and ferns will first appear on bare rock.)
The series of community changes which take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat. (i.e: areas which have been cleared of existing vegetation- such as after tree-felling in a woodland) and destructive events such as fires.
Species that is first to establish itself in an area where nothing is growing-or in an area that has been devastated by fire,flood, plowing, etc. (usually annuals, disappearing after the second year when perennials take over).
The transition area between two adjacent but different plant communities (zone between a field and forest)