Oceanography Final

In a northern hemisphere gyre, the coldest and least saline water is moved by (a) a western boundary current (b) an eastern boundary current (c) a southern transverse current (d) a northern transverse current (e) all currents within the gyre would be about equal in temperature and salinity
(b) an eastern boundary current
Compared to distilled fresh water, the freezing point of seawater is __________ and the boiling point is ________. (a) lower, lower (b) higher, higher (c) higher, lower (d) lower, higher (e) the same, the same
(d) lower, higher
Of the four boundary currents forming a gyre of circulation, the fastest and deepest are typically (a) southern transverse currents (b) western boundary currents (c) northern transverse currents (d) eastern boundary currents (e) none of the above
(b) western boundary currents
Using unique, untethered devices known as “dropcams”, scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography recently photographed and identified (a) a new shark species in shallow waters off Australia (b) giant single celled orgamisms in the Mariana Trench (c) extensive tubeworm colonies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (d) a previously unknown chain of seamounts near Hawaii (e) none of these
(b) giant single celled orgamisms in the Mariana Trench
Freezing of sea ice reults in (a) salty icebergs (b) high salinity brines (c) precipitation of solid salt (d) lowered sea level (e) none of these things are correct
(b) high salinity brines
The spherical Earth receives more solar radiation per unit area of the planet’s surface at high latitude than at low latitude (a) True (b) False
(b) False
Most of the mineral matter that comprises the continental shelves is supplied by (a) glacial transport (b) wave erosion of local coastal rocks (c) currents from the deep ocean floor (d) rivers and streams draining the continent (e) none of the above
(d) rivers and streams draining the continent
The geological edge of a continent is marked by its shoreline (a) True (b) False
(b) False
Although it may be invisible, the atmosphere always contains some water vapor (a) True (b) False
(a) True
As altitude increases in the troposphere, the density of air _______ and the air temperature _______. (a) increases, increases (b) decreases, increases (c) decreases, decreases (d) increases, decreases (e) decreases, remains the same
(c) decreases, decreases
Features of the seafloor are often grander and better preserved than their terrestrial counterparts because (a) geologic processes are more effective under water (b) most active agents of erosion found on land don’t exist in the ocean (c) a thin sedimentary veneer protects most sea floor features from erosion (d) volcanism and mountain-building only occur in the oceans (e) all of the above
(b) most active agents of erosion found on land don’t exist in the ocean
Increasing heat is an object’s response to an increase in temperature (a) True (b) False
(b) False
Low pressure areas are generally characterized by rising, warm, moist air and stormy conditions (a) True (b) False
(a) True
In the southern hemisphere, a southerly wind blowing parallel to the west coast of a continent could result in (a) surface currents moving offshore (b) a net westward transport of surface water (c) upwelling of cold water from below the pycnocline (d) movement of nutrients from the zone of accumulation to the zone of utilization (e) all of the above
(e) all of the above
The inability of red light to penetrate more than a meter or so below the ocean’s surface is the result of (a) diffusion (b) scattering (c) attenuation (d) reflection (e) none of these
(c) attenuation
The most common dissolved constituents in seawater are ions of (a) calcium and carbonate (b) chlorine and sodium (c) magnesium and iron (d) nitrogen and oxygen (e) silicon and oxygen
(b) chlorine and sodium
The oceans constancy of composition suggest that (a) the chemical composition of seawater is the same everywhere (b) the salinity of the ocean is constant (c) the ocean is at chemical equilibrium with respect to major constituents (d) the ratio of major to minor salts remains constant throughout the ocean (e) salts are being added from the continents at a constant rate
(c) the ocean is at chemical equilibrium with respect to major constituents
Permanent gases in the atmosphere include (a) methane (b) carbon dioxide (c) water vapor (d) argon (e) all of these are correct
(d) argon
In order to maintain Earth’s habitable average temperature (a) more solar radiation must be absorbed than is lost into space (b) radiogenic heat must supplement solar radiation (c) short wave solar radiation absorbed by the Earth must equal long wave radiation into space (d) more heat must be absorbed at the equator than at the poles (e) none of the above
(c) short wave solar radiation absorbed by the Earth must equal long wave radiation into space
It’s possible for two samples of seawater to have the same density at different combinations of temperature and salinity (a) True (b) False
(a) True
With the exception of folded mountain belts, the seafloor shows all the same major geologic features that are seen on land (a) True (b) False
(a) True
The main driving force powering deep water, thermohaline circulation is (a) wind (b) gravity (c) the Coriolis Effect (d) Earth’s rotation (e) seismic disturbance of the seafloor
(b) gravity
In the marine environment, most elements with short residence times are non-conservative and biologically necessary (a) True (b) False
(a) True
The immediate source of most energy moving ocean currents is ______, while the ultimate source of this energy is _______. (a) wind, the sun (b) gravity, tides (c) radiogenic heat, core heat (d) the sun, gravity (e) wind, gravity
(a) wind, the sun
Like O3, CH4, N2O and other greenhouse gases, S02 (sulfur dioxide) aerosols from human and natural sources contribute to positive forcing and climate warming (a) True (b) False
(b) False
A ping is returned to a shipboard echo sounder in 7.8 seconds. The water depth at this location is (a) 11,700 m (b) 2505 m (c) 5850 m (d) 2925 m (e) too deep to accurately measure
(c) 5850 m
The Earth’s rotational velocity is the same everywhere, regardless of latitude. (a) True (b) False
(b) False
Water vapor enters into the atmosphere by means of (a) volcanic activity (b) transpiration of plants (c) evaporation from the land surface (d) evaporation from the ocean’s surface (e) all of these
(e) all of these
The circular gyral pattern of geostrophic currents is created and kept to the periphery of ocean basins by (a) the Coriolis force and Ekman spiral (b) the direction and energy of prevailing winds (c) the frictional and pushing effects of continental masses (d) the force of gravity (e) all of the above
(e) all of the above
Of the Earth’s six major circulation patterns, two are in the northern hemisphere, four are in the southern hemisphere, and one isn’t a geostrophic current. (a) True (b) False
(a) True
The Trade Winds represent air flow from (a) the poles to the equator (b) the horse latitudes to the doldrums (c) low pressure zones to high pressure zones (d) the equator to the horse latitudes (e) west to east
(b) the horse latitudes to the doldrums
Heat is typically measured in (a) degrees (b) degrees F (c) g/cm^3 (d) calories (e) degrees C and degrees F
(d) calories
The most concentrated and ubiquitous of all greenhouse gases is (a) SO2 (b) CH4 (c) H2O (d) CO2 (e) none of these is correct
(c) H2O
The SOFAR channel, utilized by marine mammals for long-distance communications, is the result of the interplay of sound and (a) decreasing temperature with depth (b) increasing pressure with depth (c) higher salinity with depth (d) both a and b (e) none of these
(d) both a and b
Carbon dioxide concentration in seawater typically decreases with increasing depth (a) True (b) False
(b) False
The pH of seawater is ultimately regulated by (a) carbon dioxide (b) oxygen (c) temperature (d) pressure (e) biologic activity
(a) carbon dioxide
In the northern hemisphere open ocean, the very uppermost water of the surface zone moves (a) at a right angle to the wind (b) against the wind (c) parallel to the wind (d) about 40 degrees to the right of the wind (e) about 40 degrees to the left of the wind
(d) about 40 degrees to the right of the wind
A study just published by LSU sociologists suggests that following the BP Horizon oil spill in 2010, coastal citizens with the strongest attachment to their communities and livelihoods were better insulated against emotional and mental distress than those who were not so connected. (a) True (b) False
(b) False