Ocesanography Chs 1-5

Submarine Topography
“Spheres” of the earth from uppermost to lower most

  1. Biosphere
  2. Lithosphere
  3. Asthenosphere
  4. Mesosphere
  5. Outer core
  6. Inner core


Midocean Ridges
the long continuous mountain chain found in all oceans; ocean crust is created by the process of sea-floor spreading at its crest
Continental Margins
The drowned edges of continents consisting of the continental shelf and the continental rise
Continental Shelf
The shallow near-horizontal seafloor extending from the coast to the upper continental slope.
Shelf Break
The steeping of the bottom that marks the seaward limit of the continental shelf and the beginning of the continental slope
Continental Slope
The sloping sea bottom of the continental margin that begins at a depth of about 100 to 150 meters at the shelf edge and ends at the top of the continental rise or in a deep sea trench
Continental Rise
The enormous wedge of sediment deposited at the base of the continental slope
Abyssal Plain
A flat area on the deep sea floor having a very gentle slope of less than one meter per kilometer, and consisting chiefly of graded terrigenous sediments known as turbidites
Abyssal hills
A relatively small hill, typically of volcanic origin, rising no more than 1,000 meters above the seafloor.
A large, individual peak, volcanic in origin, with a crest that rises more than 1,000 meters above the surrounding seafloof
Deep-sea Trenches
Long narrow and deep topographical depressions associated with volcanic arcs that together mark a collisional zone where one lithosphere plate is overriding another.
Rift Valley
A fault-bounded valley found along the crest of many ocean ridges; it is created; it is created by tensional stresses that accompany the process of seafloor spreading.
A fracture in rock or sediment along which there has been some slippage.
Transform Fault
A steep boundary separating two lisopheric plates along which there is lateral slippage, The crest of the ocean ridges commonly is offset along transform faults.
The two kinds of rock that make up most of the earth (one on land and one in sea)
Land: GraniteOcean: Basalt
The regional mass balance of rocks in the earths crust and uppermost mantle.
Continental Drift
If you don’t know this, you have issues
instruments that detect and measure the intensity of magnetism
Strike-slip Motion
A high angle fault, such as a transform fault, along which rocks move horizontally.
Magnetic Anomalies
Subduction Zones
A collisional plate boundary along which one lithosphereic plate overrides another and produces a deep-sea trench, a volcanic arc, and seismicity
3 Fundamental Types of Plate Boundaries
Midocean RidgesSubduction ZonesTransform Faults
Thermal Convection
Mantle Plume
Benioff Zone
area of earthquakes around subduction zones
tiny particles
Terrigenous Sediment
Fine and coarse grains that are protected by the weathering and erosion of rocks on land, typically sands and mud
Biogenous Sediment
Fine and course grains that are derived from the hard parts of organisms such as shells and skelital debris, typically lime and siliceous muds
Hydrogenous Sediment
particles that are precipitated by chemical or biochemical reactions in seawater near the ocean floor; magnesium and phosphate nodules are examples.
Volcanogenous sediment
particles that are ejected from volcanoes, ash is an example
Cosmogenous sediment
Very tiny grains that originate from outer space and tend to be mixed into terrigenous and biogenic sediment
Holocene sea-level rise
Atlantic-type margins
Pacific-type Margins
Accretionary prism
Pelagic Sediment
Hydrogenous sediment
Turbidity currents
Graded Bedding
Deep-sea fans
Ice rafting
Glacial-marine Sediments
Hemipelagic sediment
Pelagic Clay
Biogenous ooze
Calcareous oozes
floating single celled animals examples: foraminifera, pteropods, and phytoplankton
Carbonate Compensation depth (CCD)
Siliceous oozes
Ferromanganese Nodules
Acidic solution
This is common sense, come on
Anaerobic Bacteria
Bacteria that respire in the absence of free oxygen
A negatively charged ion
The absence of free oxygen
Basic solution
a solution
Buffered Solution
A chemical solution that resists changes in pH despite the addition of small amounts of acids or bases
Carbonic Acid
a positivley charger ion such as K+ or Na-
Conservative ions
Deep Scattering Layer
A sound reflecting layer filled with zooplankton and nekton that moves up at night and down each day (dinurnal vertical migration) in response to changes in levels of light
The ratio of a mass to a unit volume specified as grams per cubic centimeter
Dipole Molecule
A molecule such as H2O that possesses a positively charged end and a negatively charged end
Water beneath the ground surface that seeped into the soil and rock from above
A zone in the water column where there vertical charge of salinity is relatively sharp
Heat Capacity
A measure of the quality of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 degree C
Hydrogen bonding
A weak chemical bond that forms between dipolar molecules such as water molecules, and that greatly influences the physical and chemical properties of the substance
Hydrologic Cycle
The exchange of water among the ocean, atmosphere, and land by such processes as evaporation, precipitation, surface runoff, and groundwater percolation
Solar radiation reaching a body or area/
A contour line of equal temperature
Principle of Constant Proportion
A zone having a marked change in water density as a function of water depth
residence time
The average amount of time that an element remains dissolved in seawater assuming steady state conditions
steady state
A sharp, vertical temperature gradient that marks a contact zone between water masses having markedly different temperatures
Water Stratification