Organisational behavior

This report provides an analysis and reflection on how important that current organizations to identify the management of diversity in the workplace. Two real life examples were provided and individually discussed based on the forms of perceptual distortions by integrate relevant organizational behavior theories. Relevant theories have been used in discussion are perception process, selective perception, horn effect, self-fulfilling prophecy, internal attribution, stereotyping and attribution.

In results of analyses by integrate relevant theories show that both workplaces form the examples ere affected by the common perceptual distortions in negative ways. In short-term, employees felt unfairly treated and depressed. In long-term, such action has caused people resigned from their current job. The report finds that it is important for managers to avoid common perceptual distortions create a better workplace and organization. It is recommended: Keep an open mind to know your employees as individuals by encourage them to express their feelings and ideas.

Avoid common perceptual distortions, Avoid inappropriate attributions Have a high degree of self-awareness understand what employees need and ant. Know yourself, educate yourself and employees about different cultures and groups. Be empathetic 1. 0 Introduction In companies today, management of diversity in workplace has become more and more important. Which require managers to make sure treat all employees equally, no discrimination in their judgment. The company may gain the maximum benefits when all employees feel a part of the company that they work for.

The aim of this report is to look at the various forms of perceptual distortions in real life workplace experience by integrate relevant organizational behavior theories. In the following report, two real life examples will be provided. Will be look at each case individually and define the problems related to perceptual distortions that have taken place. Then analysis and reflect on both short-term and long-term effects of such actions to the workplace and organization. Also with recommendations on how to avoid such problems and a solution to make better workplace. 1. Case one This case is based on my wife’s real life experience when she was working in a five star hotel in Beijing China. She was a lobby receptionist, her duties were aka sure the appropriate room assignments for guests; provide daily departure information to reservations, also maintain update hotel information for guests and handle guest enquires. However, she quit the job a month later after a little incident has happened. That was a snowing winter, my wife was taking her late lunch in the staff room. She has heard a knock sound from the parking side door while she was eating.

As she the only one in the staff room, so she went to the door try to open it, but the door was locked. She told the people who was outside give her a moment to get the key unlock the door. So she went to the key box get the keys, she felt confused when she got the keys, because there were roughly twenty unlabelled keys on the key chain. Therefore, she has no idea which key is the right one, so she told the person outside once again give her some time to figure out the right key. She start tried key after another key, ten minutes later she finally opened the door and she saw one of the hotel manager standing in the snow.

She start apologies for the time she has taken to unlock the door, but the manager walked pass her without a word. Two weeks later she got rendered to the laundry department, she felt unfairly treated and resigned. 1. 2 Case Two This case was based my experience working within a local finical service company. All employees work individually to provide mortgage and insurance service to our customers. But after few weeks work with the company, I realism that the employees were in two group based on their characteristics.

Group-A is likely to be more active, they are the ones who make more noise in the workplace. Group-B is more likely to be the quite group. Because of the manager also an active person, so Group-A catch more attention from the anger and even joking around with him, but not so much from Group-B. I have also discover that people from Group-A have a higher chance to get bigger clients and challenge tasks than Group-B. During that time, I have heard that people who resigned are mostly from Group-B , because they felt that they do not enjoy work there and not much improvement space with this company.

On the other hand, People from Group-A really enjoyed themselves work there. 2. 0 Analysis and Refection with Integrated Theories 2. 1 Analysis and Refection on Case One According to the definition of perception, it is a process by which an individual’s organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment (Robbins & Judge, 2011). Which in Case One, the manager can interpret the fact that my wife cannot use a key to open the door. So he evaluated her negatively and transfer her to the laundry department which only require minimum skills.

The factors that has influence the manager’s perception in his judgment: Background -? weather, cold and snowing. Which his feelings will affect him. Experience – He might has never experienced standing in the snow wait for the door to open for such long mime, in his opinion and past experience the door should open immediately. Interests – His interests are get inside as soon as possible, so he does not have to stand in the snow. Expectations -? He expect the door open immediately. All above factors has influenced his judgment.

Which in result lead him to take shortcuts when he judged her. Her action has given him a bad impressions, made him think selectively that she might not has the ability to fit her current job (Robbins & Judge, 201 1). The horn effect has also affect him in his judgment, he has overshadowed all her other characteristics based on ere one negative action (King & Alley, 2012). Which means in the case is that she is slow to unlock the door, so she might also slow as a receptionist. Furthermore, the manager did not see what he expect, which has influenced his behavior to judge her.

As the expectancy theory discuss that we see what We expect to See influence our behavior towards to others (French, Earner, Reese, & Rumbles, 201 1). In the situation, manager expect she to unlock the door immediately so he can stay out of snow, but in result he did not got what he expected. Which has effect on his behavior to make such judgment and decision. Nevertheless, the manager has made an internal attribution based on her behavior, he might think that she does not have the ability to handle her current job because she cannot even simply unlock a door immediately (Daft, 2014).

Which he blames on her behavior without consider the external attribution, such as if keys were labeled or has she used key in the past. Also transferred her to a minimum skills required job without check her past performance as a receptionist. However, such actions will effects the workplace on both short -? and long-term in the bad ways. In horn-term, the employee will definitely feel unfairly treated and decreases in their work performance. In long-term, employee will not like to work under him and quit their job, it will hard for organization to hire and costly to train new employees.

Also, words travel fast within organizations, the top management and co-workers might doubt his leadership and judgment ability. Therefore, managers should avoid inappropriate attributions, which in the case he should give her a chance to explain why event happened the way she did. Also, check her performance and repetition before make such decision. A successful manager should carefully establish the real reasons why things happen and avoids inappropriate attributions (Sings, 2010). 2. Analysis and Refection on Case Two Stereotyping defined as when we judge someone on the basis Of our perception of a group to which he or she belongs (Robbins & Coulter, 2012). Which we can see clearly that the manager in Case Two did not do a good job to avoid stereotyping in his workplace. First of all, he known that his employees has divided into two stereotyping groups without any action to correct it. The reason for that is the manager also has an active personality, which means that Group-A and him are the same kind, he has already approved the situation in his mind without realized.

By applying the social identity theory, which his social identity made him to develop less favor images of people in Group-B than Group-A (Mills, Helms Mills, Foresaw, & Britton, 2007). He think that his kind of people will do a better job, so he has given more opportunities to the people from Group-A. But not the people from Group-B and caused them depressed and resigned. As perception is the process of individual organize, select and interpret information in order to vive meaning to their environment (Helloing & Slouch, 2009). The manager’s perception has influenced his decisions to treat people differently.

He might not realism that he has already had the halo effect on people from Group-A. Which halo effect might lead him to allow positive characteristic of Group-A persons override all their other characteristics (Lutheran, 2010). As the manager pays most of his attention on the group he favor Of, he might avoid such factor like quality and quantity of work to judge their performance. He might also suffer from the selective perception when he evaluate his employees. Selective perception is the process of screening out those information that we do not want to know or remember (Griffin & Moorhens, 2013).

According to the case, as Group-A have a positive image in the managers mind, he may choose to quickly forget when they did not perform well or did something wrong. But on the other hand, Group-B did not have a positive image, he may also choose to quickly forget when something they did well. Furthermore, attribution theory discuss that internal attribution caused by personality and external attribution due to situations that beyond their intro (Robbins & Judge, 2011 In the case, the manager tend to use internal attribution determine all employees based on their behavior.

He may think that Group-B did not perform well is because of their quite personality, he chose to ignored the external factor that he did not give them the opportunity to take challenges tasks. However, perceptual distortions can affect workplace in many ways. In short-term, the managers behavior can affect poor employee morale, the more he ignore them the worse they will become (French, Earner, Reese, & Rumbles, 201 1). Which this will build up more evidence to prove his perspective that the quite group do not perform well within the workplace.

Once the self-fulfilling prophecy cycle completed will affect the workplace overall performance. On the other hand, those behaviors will also affect the workplace in long-terms. As those people’s poor productivity might cause of lost sales and customers, also it will be difficult to retraining those employees after such time. Ultimately people will start leaving and it will hard for the company to hire good employees again. Therefore, it is important for the manager to create a better workplace by now themselves and understand others avoid such behavior. 3. Conclusion & Recommendation In conclusion, it is important for companies to identify the management of diversity within their workplace. Sometime, negative perceptual distortions behavior can be very costly for the organizations. Therefore, managers should understand the role of perception as an influence factor on human behavior. Be aware of factors which affect the perception of the employees in the workplace. Also should know that perceptual difference due to different situation. To avoid common perceptual distortions create a better aerospace and organization.

Here are the recommendations for companies to avoid such behavior. As a manager, keep an open mind to know your employees as individuals by encourage them to express their feelings and ideas. Avoid common perceptual distortions, such as stereotype, halo/horn effect, selective projection and other common perceptual distortions. Avoid inappropriate attributions, do not judge people based on one internal or external attribution, give them chance to explain themselves and find out the real reason behind it. Have a high degree of self-awareness understand what employees need and want.