Pesticide

During dry conditions, the female bug deposits its eggs on the leaves and stem. Eggs are also laid in cracks on the soil and on roots. These bugs belong to the Pantomimed and under in the Hemisphere order which tells that these bugs are truly pests to our crops and plants. According to the International Rice Research Institute and the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, there are three or four overlapping generations of these pests in a year. The first generation and part of the second generation occur on the first crop; the remainder of the second, the third, and part of the fourth generation occurs on the second crop.

There are two overlapping generations in activation at each period between crops. At activation sites, fourth and fifth in star nymphs and adults are most commonly found. In Trace Maritime, Cavity, agriculturists are trying to control the rice black bug using several methods still they are unable to kill these pests. According to provincial agriculturist Engineer Mario C. Sills, these pestering bugs have swarmed and virtually dried up plantations in at least eight towns and one city of the province. Sills also stated that the towns of Manic, Marooned, Carbon, General Trials, Emus, Tanta, Kuwait, Threaten and

Dismissal are already infested by these bugs. Prior to this, in a bid to get rid of the plague, Manic Mayor Edwina Mendoza is giving a ROI reward for every sack of bugs that will be brought to the municipal hall’s dumping area by any individuals. In general these bugs truly are pests not only in Carbon but also in the whole province of Cavity, which will be the main location for the research to be done. Entomologists Gertrude Arid and Dry. Hoi Guan said that these pests entered the Philippines from Saba, Malaysia in 1972 and was later detected in Sambaing and slowly spread throughout the country, migrating to Mindanao then to Visas.

Its first recorded incident was in Bonbon, Battista, in southern Planar in the year 1 979, while the major outbreak happened to be in the year 1982. Years later it migrates from Mindanao to the eastern part of Visas particularly in Kaufmann, Negroes Occidental, moving in Boll in 1999. The pest continues to infest areas in Elite and Samara during 3 years causing many farmers to lose more than half of their harvests. Now it is in Laguna and making its total infestation in the fields of Carbon and other major rice producing towns and cities in Luzon. There are several available methods on how to control the rice bugs.

Cultural method includes plowing the fields to hope kill and destroy the newly developed nymphs and destroy their host plant, also pulling the weeds allow more sunlight to pass through. Another is to control the pests by the use of its natural enemies which includes wasps, ground and Cinderella beetle, wolf, lynx, long-jawed spider, red ant and damsel bug, this method belongs to the biological means of controlling pests. AIR said that the chemical way which is directly spraying insecticides at the base of the plants where the black bugs stay provides the most effective control.

Variety resistance includes rice altars or kind of rice plants which are resistant to these bugs. The researchers aims to produce a natural pesticide out of the heavenly elixir or the Mikhail plant and prove that it is an effective and more economical way to kill these bugs. The pests’ natural enemies include wasps, ground and Cinderella beetle, wolf, lynx, long-jawed spider, red ant and damsel bug. Among these predators, Telethons trips was found to be very effective. These insects eat the black bugs eggs and nymphs which therefore prevents future infestation in the crops cultured with these kinds of black bug natural

Black rice bugs are commonly seen on environments which contains marsh and wetlands where the bugs lay their eggs and nymphs develop into a full adult stage. In rice plants they are seen at the base of the plants where the sap-sucking insect gets its nutrients to be able to survive for more than six months. Others are seen at most host plants such as gab, corn, weeds and others. Panicle or the pyramidal loosely branched flower clusters of the crops are also one of the target locations of the ” tangy The nymphs and adults Of the pests Stays at the base Of the plants during the day and move up to the leaves at night.

But when the population increases to a higher number, the bugs stays at the leaves even during daytime. Damages to crops are observed after the maturing or heading stage, two of the most common but extensive detriment done to plants are adherent and bugbear. Adherent, a condition of the plant wherein the damaged tillers’ center leaves turn brown and die is usually visualized after the tiller stage while bugbear is where the leaves turn reddish brown, resulting in crop loss. Bugbear usually inflicts greater damage because it can deduce the number of rice crops by not less than 40 % of the original harvest.

ORB feeding according to the Philippine Rice Institute, causes desiccation (dryness) in plants and disconsolation (reddish-brown or yellow) in the leaves. Plants Despite the expanding infestation of these bugs many researches has investigate on plants that can be used to dispatch these pests, One research conducted at the University Of the Philippines in the Visas, West Visas State University, and Panky State Polytechnic University found out plants that maybe the solutions to these globally expanding problem. These plants that they have discovered are the roots of tubule (Dermis elliptical

Bent), vines of Macaulay/meaningful (Dinosaur rump), and tubers of kayos (Discover waspish) were used for the development of the natural pesticides. The plant materials were collected from Umbra in Capri, and Amiga-AAA town in Lillo. Most of compounds isolated from tubule are ossifications. The roots of D. elliptical, which is closely related to D. Philippines contain rotenone, leptons, dieseling, mallow, d-toxicology, depression, dehydrogenate, and dermatological. Rotenone is In use as an insecticide even before the advent of architectonics insecticides.

The tubers of D. waspish contain a poisonous alkaloid called disorient that paralyzes the nervous system. It also has Diogenes, which generally occurs in combined form as glycoside (aspirin). It is present as Romano-Romano-glycoside called decision. Diogenes is a rich source of steroids. T. rump contains a bitter principle columbine, traces of alkaloid, and a glycoside, amorphous bitter principle victories, and traces of barbering. The bitter principle is glycoside in nature. The two alkaloids present are tensioning and demonstrations.

In relation to our research a plant that has been proven to possess certain insecticidal properties that can kill Hess pests is being processed to be a natural pesticide. This plant is the heavenly elixir (sin). Heavenly Elixir Heavenly Elixir plant also knows as: Macaulay (Toga), Heavenly elixir (English), Caducei, Callaghan Dinosaur (India) Macaulay fruits Macaulay plant (Dinosaur Cordially) also popularly known as Indian Caducei, gigolo or Heavenly elixir is a native plant from tropical and subtropical rainforest’s in the Far East such as in India, Philippines, Sir Lank and Malaysia.

The Philippine Herbal Medicine states that, the Macaulay plant is a clinging, clinging and audaciously vine, and from the name itself simply tells its repose to a such plant. Macaulay is a Filipino translation of the English term ‘pro-life or to give life’. It was classified in Arrived medicine as a Arkansan herb, which translates to “circulation of the nutrient” in Sanskrit, considered enhancing longevity, promoting intelligence and preventing disease. It is also commonly known for its name “Palladian” or “disadvantage” in the region of Visas.

The family of the plant is known Misplacement, and can grow, or rather climb, up to fifteen meters long. The characteristic of the leaves of the Macaulay plant are thin sheets that are heart-shaped, and TTS flowers look distinct as they only have three petals. The Macaulay plant is known for its bitter nature, and the fruits of this plant are held in clusters, which can be as long as TV’0 centimeters. This plant propagation can be planting its stem, which has a bitter sap inside. However, it is important to keep in mind that most of the forests all over the in Philippines that Macaulay plant can be found.

It grows in tropical areas, and it is of little wonder why it is abundant in a tropical country like the Philippines. The fruits of this plant have not been utilized nor established to have medicinal values. Only the leaves and the stems of Macaulay have been found to cure particular health concerns. For the stems, both the dried and the fresh stems are found to be beneficial. The plant’s property is considered firebug, vulnerably, tonic, antimicrobial, parasitic, and insecticidal and Studies also suggest it as coordination, antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antithetic, interpretative, hypodermic properties.

Heavenly elixir (Dinosaur rump Boer l) contains a bitter principle, columbine (2. 22 %); traces of an alkaloid; and glycoside. Also contains an amorphous bitter principle, victories and traces of barbering. A study showed that the bitter extract of the stem does not contain an alkaloid. Leaves yielded victories, traces of an alkaloid and a substance similar to glycerin’s. Bitter principle is glycoside in nature. Study reported two alkaloids, tensioning and demonstrations. Study yielded two new determines along with known compounds tomfooling D and vituperation. Ragas, Cruz, Gulag, Iridous, 2000) . The Department of Agriculture (DOD) proves that the heavenly elixir has many economic importance such as botanical plant. According to the Central Mindanao Agricultural Research Center (SEMINAR), the said botanical plant as been proven to be an effective pesticide for black rice bug which are economical and readily available in the market. Just because Macaulay is just commonly found in the forests in the Philippines, these botanical are found convenient, applicable and acceptable to farmers.

They also said that the plant is economically important in terms of high grain yield of rice crops and to lessen the use of the chemical products like the chemical pesticides which is known as a pollutant to our environment. Heavenly elixir has different effects on pests likewise it exhibits the same effects on black bugs. These effects may include the extermination of the bugs by thoroughly spraying the produced pesticide to the parts and host plants the bugs may occur. Also repellent may be produced to prevent the occurrence of the bugs again and to lessen the population of the bugs.

Natural Pesticide from Plants II. Background on the Methodologies a. Preparations for the Heavenly Elixir Pesticide Put the plants inside a bag made of net and pound the bag to let some juice out of the leaves and stems. Put the bag inside a glass container or a clay jar with water to ferment under ambient temperature for O. ‘vow weeks. Bigger Arden/farm would need larger containers and more plant materials. After fermentation, pour the concentrated liquid in a spray bottle or in larger farms, spray equipments. Dilute with water before spraying. Then spray on the crops. . Fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or a sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. For example, yeast performs fermentation to obtain energy by converting sugar into alcohol. Bacteria perform fermentation, converting carbohydrates into lactic acid. It is a chemical change with effervescence and is an enigmatically enthroned anaerobic of an energy-rich compound. It can improve the effectiveness of certain compounds against another or to make a substance that is more potent for its desirable usage.

Fermentation is done by placing the extracts or substances that will be fermented in a glass container or in a clay pot and will be set aside undisturbed for not less than TV’0 weeks. This is retrieved from Merriam-Webster Dictionary. C. Gathering of Black Bugs The only strategy that is convenient to do is to counter their activities like for example, they go out from their shelter inside the plant or rice when they are ever populated, the female ORB can be seen at the rice leaves when they start to lay eggs and last is that they can be seen at the tiller of the rice.

The way that we can see is to vacuum the bugs when they are visible and outside the rice, in vacuuming the bugs we could gather them easily but with the other particles that goes with the air pressure we need to filter it after collecting them to separate them from the dust particles. II. Other Related Studies/lades A research conducted by the Herbs and Supplements Research Database (MORONIC) in Dalmatian, Buckskin showed thirteen plants have been found effective in controlling insects that attack plants, particularly potato, in Northern Mindanao.

These are: Laguna,wild sunflower, madder De cacao, tubule, Macaulay, layman dalai, nee, tobacco, hot pepper, eucalyptus, Della, and tats. These plants’ effectiveness in neutralizing greenhouse whitely and sweet potato whitely were confirmed by the study. The researchers reported that extracts of the 13 plants sprayed at five percent concentration reduced the population of whitely. Specifically, extracts of tobacco leaves, hot pepper leaves, rhizomes of layman dalai, and roots of tubule had fast-acting effects tot in the laboratory and greenhouse.

Slow-acting poison was obtained from the extracts of nee leaves and seeds, madder De cacao leaves, vines Of Macaulay, and wild sunflower leaves. It was further concluded by the researchers that the botanical insecticides were effective, environment- friendly, and had no adverse effects on health. Pram et al 2011 conducted a study in which the active components of the T. Crisps extract are identified and followed by the investigation of the effects and mechanisms of the active components. In a research conducted by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry ND Natural resources Research & development (PACKARD) at the U.

P Los Bassos, it was found out the juice of 50 grams of heavenly elixir for 1. 25 elites water can control the occurrence of black rice bugs in rice fields. The study also concluded that there are various ways Of using heavenly elixir. One is by soaking the roots of the play seedlings in the heavenly elixir solution 24 hours before planting. Another is by broadcasting the juice of the Macaulay on the play seedlings. Another related study shows that the application of chopped heavenly elixir is as effective as the use of chemical pesticides in reducing adherents and white heads due to black rice bug attacks and infestation.

The study also explained the toxicity of this plant against rice bugs. The application of chopped Mahogany is as effective as the use of chemical pesticides in reducing adherents and white heads due to striped stepmother attack and in reducing the black bug population. The combination of aqueous Macaulay extract root soaking and broadcasting of chopped vine is as effective as the recommended chemical pesticide seedling treatment followed by spraying with chemical pesticides 25 days after transplanting. Broadcasting of ground Macaulay vine (0. 25 keg/sq. On rice seedbed 10 days after sowing is as effective as broadcasting with chemical pesticides. Researchers at the University of the Philippines in the Visas, West Visas State University, and Panky State Polytechnic University jointly implemented a project to develop product concepts for pest control using ethnologically. One of the plants that will be tested for these study is the heavenly elixir plant because of its high insecticidal properties against pests especially black rice bugs, The products will be produced commercially and sold to farmers at affordable price. The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural

Resources Research and Development, an agency of the Department of Science and Technology is funded the project. Potential plants for the project were selected based on availability, high objectivity, and indemnity. Selection was also based on the plants; active ingredients already known and whether such ingredients can be extracted as soluble in water. Dinosaur rump is found to be an effective pesticide. The research team of the University of the Philippines Visas (JP) has formulated botanical pesticides or potentialities from Dermis elliptical (tubule), Dinosaur rump (Macaulay), and Discover waspish (kayos).

Field tests were done and evaluated under greenhouse condition against aphid, whitely, and fruit borer of peachy, eggplant, green onion, and hot pepper by Penicillin and co- researchers. The formulated botanical in powder and liquid forms were diluted in different volumes of water before application in the field or greenhouse. The results showed that based on the field trials, the average yields of the vegetables treated with potentialities were not significantly different from those treated with commercial insecticides, however the total marketable eggplants were low due to severe fruit borer infestation.

It was also found that these formulations were as affective as the commercial insecticides in the control of aphids and mites. The effect of liquid natural insecticides at 20 tabs/L water was comparable with that of the commercially prepared insecticide in controlling adult whitefishes within one day of spraying, while there was no effective insecticide evaluated against eggplant borer and fruit borer. At the farm level, the use of natural insecticides in liquid formulation at 80 L/ha was found effective against infestations of aphids, mites, and whitely in vegetables.

According to the findings Tenor RAW, Undo L, Rosa R and AC Cinchona from he JUST Faculty of Pharmacy, based on the claims of old folks Macaulay (Dinosaur rhombi) is a liana that grows in the wild. Previous experiments proved that its extract is effective in controlling common rice insect pest and the golden kohl. According to a related study about the heavenly elixir as a natural pesticide for bugs, it is included in the certain plants, which are not harmful to the environment or to the user, repel the black insect pests that attack rice plants. Some of these are the tubule (or liable) lasting(or micas).

According to A. Careen (1999) Research in the Philippines shows that a plant ladled Macaulay (Dinosaur rump) controls striped stepmothers and green and brown leafhopper and rice black bugs. With fewer striped stepmothers you will have fewer adherents and white heads among your rice plants. Farmers can make a homemade pesticide using Macaulay. Macaulay is a vine that grows in the Philippines and some other tropical countries. It is poisonous to striped stepmothers and green and brown leafhopper. This treatment works as well as a chemical pesticide but it is cheaper and safer to use.

If Macaulay grows in your area you might want to try it There are two ways to prepare and use the plant. Both methods are easy. In the first method the plant is chopped into small pieces, mixed with water, and applied to the rice seedlings. The second method is to place the Macaulay plant directly in the rice field. In another related study it shows that the Macaulay or heavenly elixir plant is a feasible plant as pesticide (rice blacklegs, rice green leafhopper, rice stem borers) using pounded chopped vines stirred in one liter of water and sprayed on seedlings before transplanting or soaking the seedlings overnight before transplanting.

In studies led by Philippic crop protection specialist Eloise H. Batty-an, it was observed that soon after the black bug egg mass population reaches its peak, egg parasitism subsequently reaches its peak also. This indicates that the pest cannot do much damage if much care is done to protect the parasites from chemical sprays. An experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields in Kitchener, Susan del Norte and Separates, Susan del Sure, using NCSC RCA 22 and SSP Race as the test varieties since these are among the popular varieties in the Crag region. This experiment shows that black bugs can be treated using the heavenly elixir extract.

The results indicated lower egg parasitism in direct-seed rice than transplanted rice. Batty-an said this could be due to the poor searching ability of the adult parasite in locating their host (the eggs) in direct-seeded rice. He added that in transplanted rice, the parasite could easily transfer from one hill to another, leading to higher efficiency in finding their host. According to a related study about a natural pesticide out of heavenly elixir the said pesticide can last for almost 2-3 months when stored at room temperature. Still the pesticide is effective even if it is stored in room imperative for more than a months.

Most of compounds isolated from tubule are ossifications. The roots of D. elliptical, which is closely related to D. Philippines contain rotenone, leptons, dieseling, mallow, d-toxicology, depression, dehydrogenate, and dermatological. Rotenone is in use as an insecticide even before the advent of architectonics insecticides. The tubers of D. waspish contain a poisonous alkaloid called disorient that paralyzes the nervous system. It also has Diogenes, which generally occurs in combined form as glycoside (aspirin). It is present as Romano-Romano- leucosis called decision.