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High birth rates & high death rates. Zero or low growth- -2. Declining death rate, but high birth rate, so high growth rate -3. Declining death rate, and birth rate, so low growth rate /4. Both birth and death rates low, so close to zero growth- –
Why is population momentum an important concept for countries concerned about population growth in the future?
As certain age groups get older, populations must garner the necessary resources to cater towards these predicted booms and busts in population size, and the age groups that dominate the total population.
When did the world reach 1 billion, 2 billion, and 6 billion?
– ca. 1800- 1930- 1999
Why do scientists speak of a demographically divided world?
– One half of the population is comprised of industrialized countries. These countries have established a balance between births and deaths, which improves the average citizen’s living conditions.- In the other half, birth rates remain high, and rapid population growth is leading to the prevalence of environmental degredation and the lowering of the standard of living.
Define:Crude Birth RateCrude Death RateCrude Rate if Natural Increase
– Crude Birth Rate = # of live births/1,000 people (estimate at midyear)- Crude Death Rate = # of deaths/1,000 people (estimate at midyear)- Crude Rate of Natural Increase = CBR-CDR
In what decade was the peak of the world population growth rate?
How can the absolute number of births increase if the birth rate is declining?
Must take into account the population (of women).
It’s a issue of proportion.
What is the only sustainable population growth rate in the long term?
Name two countries with negative natural increase rates.
– Bulgaria- Serbia
Briefly describe the epidemiological transition.
This is essentially shift from infectuous diseases to degernative, chronic diseases.- Acute to Chronic
What is the definition of maternal mortality?
The death of a woman while pregnant, or within 42 days of the termination of a pregnancy. The death also cannot be accidental, it has to somehow correlate to the pregnancy.
Name 2 of the causes of under-5 deaths in the world.
– Diarrhea- Pneumonia- Malaria
What is the Infant Mortality Rate?
Number of infant deaths in a year * 1000 Number of live births in a year
What is the Neonatal Mortality Rate?
# of deaths of newborns in their first month of life / 1,000
# Deaths of children 1-11 months/ # Births
How is Malaria transmitted from human to human?
Female Annopheles Mosquitos
What is a simple, low-cost treatment for diarrhea?
Proper sanitation and hand washing
Why is malnutrition very important, even though it is rarely a cause of death in children?
Because it can result in under/overnutrition, which are two prevalent causes of child deaths.
What is the Expectation of Life at Birth?
Overall mortality level of a population- Summarizes the mortality patterns across all age groups in a given year
Why is the CDR a poor measure to compare the health of a population?
It is too affected by the age structure of a population.- Non-proportional
Name one way to prevent malaria.
– Bednets- Antimalarial drugs
What s the intervention that prevents polio and measels?
The sum of cause-specific death rates in a population gives us what rate?
What is the shape of the ASDR?
Nike swoosh upwards.
Name one public health intervention that led to declines in mortality.
Water cleaning, which halted the Cholera outbreak.
In what region is maternal mortality the highest?
Name one continent where endemic polio is still found.
Name 3 intermediate fertility variables.
– Formation & dissolution of sexual unions- Exposure to intercourse within unions- Abstinence & Involuntarily abstinence- Celibacy
Define the TFR.
Number of children that would be born to a woman is she were to live to the end of her child bearing years, and bear children abiding by current ASFRs.
Probability that a woman will conceive during a mentrual cycle.
Number of children born alive to a woman.
Number of pregnancies a woman has had.
What is the most important intermediate determinant of fertility?
What is the most important distal determinent of fertility?
What is replacement fertility?
Number of births/woman that replaces itself sustainably, in the long term. Typically 2.1-2.3.
What percentage of the worl population lives in countries with at, or below replacement fertility?
Why is the duration of postpartum amoenorrhea associated with the duration of breastfeeding?
Because the longer that a woman breastfeeds for, the longer their amenorrheic period is.
What 5-year afe group of women typically has the highest fertility?
What are the two types of unintended pregnancies?
– Mistimed- Unwanted
What does the typically pattern of the ASFR look like?
Hump on a camels back, peaking at 24-29.
Why is replacement level fertility about 2.1 births/woman, and not 2.
Only in developed countries can the TFR stay at 2.0.
Why/How does age at marriage affect TFR?
Whatever age group contains the largest amount of married women, will also project the highest TFR.
What are the most popular contraceptive methods in the U.S.?
– Condoms- The pill- IUDs- Female sterilization
Approximately how many sperm are in one ejaculate?
Where is the epididymis located?
It is a tightly-coiled tube that connects from the rear of the testicles, to the vas deferens.
Where does fertilization usually occur?
Once sperm penetrates through the fallopian tube, it burrows its way into an egg which is in the uterus.
What are the two phases of the menstrual cycle?
– Follicular (begins on day 1 of the cycle)- Luteal (begins when ovulation occurs)
What is the problem with oil lubricants, and condoms?
Oil based lubricants weaken the latex in most condoms.
What contraceptive method is believed to have been responsible for the fertility decline in France in the the early 1800s?
Rubber based condoms
In what region is the under-5 mortality rate the highest?
What is the single most important direct cause of death for children worldwide?
Name one micronutirent deficiency that contributes to child mortality.
Vitam A and Zinc deficiency
In what region is malnutrition the highest?
Why is it important the you begin breastfeeding within 30m-1h of birth?;
It reduces neonatal mortality
Define exclusive breastfeeding.
The infant receives only breast milk. No powders, or any iother liquids.
What immunzation if important for the mother to receive before or during a pregnancy?
– Hepatits A, B- Influenza- Rotavirus
What is ORS?
Oral Rehydration Salts
Name 2 preventative interventions for child mortality.
Name 2 therapeutic interventions for child mortality.
– Oral Rehydration therapy- Antibiotics for pneumonia- Antimalarials- Zinc, for diarrhea- Newborn resuscitation- Antibiotics for dysentary
In what region is conctraceptive use the lowest?
Name 3 reproductive health components.
– Sexual behavior- STDs ; HIV- Contraception- Breastfeeding- Abortion
Do abortion rates typically go up or down as contraception prevalance rises?
What is the rationale for the statement, “Development is the best contraception”?
Although some developing countries can cover their own contraceptive costs, most lack the foreign exchange ; manufacturing capacity to meet their own needs without some assistance from donors.
Meaning that with development, comes increased prevalence of contraception.
What is the difference between a horizontal and a vertical health program?
Vertical is the utilization of one intervention, whereas horzontal integrates more than one intervention.
In what decade was the contraceptive pill first marketed?
What is the Mexico City policy?
This policy prohibits USAID from funding foreign NGOs that provide abortion services, legel or illegal, or that promote its legalization.
Even if they use their own funds for these activities.
What background variable is most closely associated with fertility levels?
During which part of the menstrual cycle is progesterone high?
Name 2 side effects of oral contraceptives.
– Headache- Nausea
Briefly describe one of the fertility awareness methods.
Standard days method- Understanding stages of the menstrual cycle a woman is most fertile in.
What is LAM?
Lactational Amenorrheal Method
What one key item in a safe delivery kit helps prevent neonatal tetanus?
Tetanus toxoid vaccine
In which region is low birth weight the highest poportion of infant deaths?
Who was Margaret Sanger?
She opened the first birth control clinic.
What is the definition of unmet need for contraception?
The percent with an unmet need for family planning is the number of women with unmet need for family planning expressed as a percentage of women of reproductive age who are married or in a union.
Women with unmet need are those who are fecund and sexually active but are not using any method of contraception, and report not wanting any more children or wanting to delay the birth of their next child.
How many abortions occur in the world/year?
What country is the largest donor of population assistance?