Physiology Basics

1.       Know the difference between metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism
a.       Metabolism: Chemical process allowing the body to grow, reproduce, maintain, and repair itself and respond to its environment.
b.      Catabolism: A type of metabolism when the body breaks down complex substances into simpler ones. The desired end result is ATP.
c.       Anabolism: A type of metabolism when then body manufactures more complex substances into simpler ones. Anabolic process requires energy.
2.       The function of the mitochondria and where energy production takes place in the cell.
a.       The main function of the mitochondria is to produce ATP, thus ATP (energy) production takes place in the mitochondria.
3.       Define ATP and when/what process creates it.
a.       ATP is Adenosine triphosphate.
b.      ATP is created in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. This takes place in the cytoplasm where glucose ? pyruvic acid (a process called glycolysis) this step does not require oxygen and is anaerobic metabolism. It produces small amounts of ATP (roughly 2 mol.)
                                                               i.      The second step takes place in the mitochondria in a process called the Krebs cycle. This is done in the presence of oxygen and creates far more ATP.
4.       Define ribosomes and know the function.
a.       Ribosomes definition: a small particle in the cytoplasm containing RNA and other proteins.
b.      Function of ribosomes: Bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
5.       Description and functions of connective, nervous, and epithelial tissue.
a.        Connective tissue: Also known as fibroblasts include collagen, elastin or fibronectin.  Connects tissues.
b.      Nervous: Found in nerves. Carry messages around the body, to adapt to it’s surroundings. Nervous tissues are very long with branched ends.
c.       Epithelial: Allow different compartments to have different…