Population Dynamics & Env Economics

What is the difference between arithmetic growth and geometric growth, and which one does an uncontrolled population exhibit?
Arithmetic: linear
Geometric: exponential

Geometric

Define and graph: J-curve & S-curve & Overshoot, Dieback, Carrying Capacity
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What are some of the factors that act to maximize a population’s biotic potential?
Reproductive rate
Ability to migrate to similar habitats
Ability to adapt and invade new habitats
Defense mechanisms
Resistance to disease
What are some of the env resistance factors that push back against the full biotic potential to keep the pop. in balance?
Lack of food, water, habitat
Climatic conditions
Predators and parasites
Competitions
Disease
What are the two most important factors that led to the current human pop. increase since the 1800’s?
1) Reduction in disease transmission
2) Improvement in nutrition
What is the formula for a doubling time of a pop.?
t=70/rate
What is the current global human pop., its doubling time, and its growth rate?
What region of the world has the largest pop. growth rate?
What does the word “economy” mean?
What is the env term for degradation of commonly held resources?
Tragedy of the Commons
How does one compute the net benefit to society for a resource at a given price point?
The area between the S&D curves left of the quantity sold
In terms of supply and demand, what price point will give the max net benefit to society?
Where supply and demand lines meet
What two assumptions are in place to calculate optimal price point for a resource which are known to be false?
Players must be rational
&
Have perfect information
What class of economic factors skew the optimal price point in real world economics?
Externalities
For environmental issues, what are the three most common failures of the market system?
Inability to:
-Recognize sustainable yield thresholds of natural systems
-Value nature’s services
-Incorporate env costs of economic activities
What are the major economic strategies for fixing the problems the market system has?
Adjusted GNP
Closing the circle
Biomimicry