Preamble life. Entrepreneurial coaching/mentoring can be a sufficiently


Inclusive Mentor/Coach

         An inclusive mentor/coach is a person who takes care of himself, takes care of his/her mentee/coachee relationships and takes care of his/her
mentee/coachee surroundings. This is done through listening deeply the
needs of the world around them, designing new relationships and possible
conversations or creating spaces from the emotional point of view.

the PwD are perceived like second class citizens in the place of work because
of a combination of factors, between which we can include inferior formative
levels, as well as a series of prejudices, that provoke the people with
disability do not work and those that do it are working in low specialized jobs
with lower salaries and poor recognition.

frequency, this is due to the people with disability are seen as not prepared
for the work and generally don´t get the opportunity to show the contrary.
Other reasons are that, often, the people with disability haven´t had access to
formation and/or to professional training.

conclusion, the people with disability result to be candidates very valid for
the companies and self-employment once we break the barriers which impede it
(physical, psychological and formative).

Social Model of the Disability called already Model of Independent Life transforms “the individual problem
of the disability” in the “social problem of the disability”, a question of ethical and philosophical
character: the “disability” pass from being “a private
fact” to be “a social fact” in definite, the disability acquire
moral status, it is an ethical question.

create something by them, to assume their own life, to be a collaborative part
in the Society, are some of the ideas
that people with disability need to assume and interiorized.

same are extraneous to concepts that have to revolutionize his life and carry
them to the entrepreneurship. The mentoring/coaching to the entrepreneurship is
a way to help people with disability to assume an independent life.

coaching/mentoring can be a sufficiently customized way to help PwD to develop
their entrepreneur skills. However, the usefulness remains to be verified. The
purpose of this unit is to examine the importance of inclusive entrepreneurship,
challenges for people with disabilities to become entrepreneurs as well as its


1/ Inclusive Entrepreneurship


1-1 Definitions of Inclusive Entrepreneurship

         Based on the
analysis of scientific publications and other documents, it can be concluded
that the entrepreneurship of people with disabilities can significantly
contribute to the economic development of the country through the creation of
new products and services, jobs and the rehabilitation of this social group.
The growing number of people who own the companies shows that disabled people
show entrepreneurial traits that effectively break social barriers and actively
participate in economic processes by running their own businesses or other
forms of economic activity.

         Entrepreneurship of people with
disabilities is an important issue and challenge of contemporary societies, but
at the same time a complex phenomenon in which the economic dimension is
crucial, and on the other hand taking on the self-employed by disabled people
and taking on the role of business owners is strongly culturally conditioned.
Countries that give all enterprising citizens the opportunity and the necessary
support to disclose and effectively exploit their opportunities are
experiencing rapid economic growth. Therefore, exploiting the potential of
entrepreneurship in people with disabilities is a source of increased
prosperity for the various disadvantaged groups as well as for society as a

         Inclusive entrepreneurship is in
principle a new concept not only in the language, but also in the theory of
entrepreneurship. This is the concept of including social groups excluded from
the labor market and, more broadly, from the capitalist economy, which enables
people in these groups to use their skills and competences to carry out their
projects, not necessarily business but mainly business ventures.

         Inclusive entrepreneurship refers to
the sociological concept of inclusion, but also to the economic conception of
inclusion. Inclusive entrepreneurship provides equal opportunities for
different social groups in fulfilling their aspirations and dreams, business
and economic ventures, in other words equalizing opportunities  for entrepreneurship, so that these
opportunities are for everyone.

is Inclusive Entrepreneurship? It is a term created at the University
of Syracuse based on the successful program of action for entrepreneurship for
people with disabilities and people with low incomes. The program has
identified unique tools and processes that must beat the entrepreneur through a
four-tier entrepreneurial model, with an emphasis on stage 1, which uses
self-assessment tools to help beginners identify and pursue their passions,
strengths and give them a business dimension.

Entrepreneurship is a strategy and
process that helps people with various disabilities and / or economic and
social difficulties become entrepreneurs through business planning training,
the use and development of business goals and support planning, and finally
access to financial resources using partners or private resources operating
within a consensus-based cooperation “.

Syracuse University Burton
Blatt Institute/Whitman School of Management


         Another definition:
“It is entrepreneurship that contributes to social inclusion, to give all
people an equal opportunities to start up and operate businesses. Target groups
are those who are disadvantage and under-represented in entrepreneurship and
self-employment, including youth, women, seniors, ethnic minorities and
immigrants, disabled people and many other groups”.


          And a last definition: “Self?employment for
people with disabilities is both challenging and exciting. It is a positive
challenge for people with disabilities who hope to have more income, become
included in their communities, and improve the quality of their lives with
family and friends. It is challenging for human service professionals who must
move in this direction, but the reward is achieving successful outcomes for
their clients.”

     Alice Weiss


1-2 Importance of Inclusive

            Based on data from the Central Statistical Office, it
can be concluded that people with
disabilities are far less economically active than people without disabilities.
Occupational inactivity and poor business activity of this social group are
due, among other things, to the lack of knowledge of the problems of this
environment, the social anxiety of persons who are not functioning properly,
the cultural and civilizational backlashes, the stereotypes and prejudices of
the environment, and the mental barriers inherent in the disabled people
themselves. A large part of these people can work professionally or even run
their own business or company if they receive adequate support and substantive
help. Unfortunately, due to psychological and external barriers, physically
disabled people are not always ready to take on such a challenge.

         Professional activity of people with
dysfunction is a basic and key way to
improve their economic status or social image by changing the perception of the
disabled person by the environment. It allows them to be treated not by the
prism of inefficient bodies, but as persons with specific competences or
abilities and  having the same needs, rights
and duties as others. The attractiveness of professional activity is not only
on improving the economic status by increasing income, but above all, creating
the possibility of psychosocial self-realization.

or own business ensures independence and increased autonomy in personal and
social life. It is about the ability to realize the interests and passions
of life, as well as making decisions and knowingly directing one’s own life.
The work properly suited to professional predispositions, abilities and
competences and the type of qualifications gives satisfaction, meets the needs
of social utility and usefulness, increases the sense of value and stabilizes
self-esteem. Enterprising people with disabilities regain their confidence,
they can without fear and shame to live actively in their environment. The
above arguments indicate that entrepreneurial activation of people with
disabilities may be an important instrument to counteract social exclusion of
this group.

         Promoting inclusive entrepreneurship constitutes an
important part of the Lisbon agenda and the Europe 2020 strategy which treats
entrepreneurship as a key component of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.

offers the ability for individuals and
families to achieve economic independence and stability, contributes to social
inclusion to give all people an equal opportunity run businesses. Target
groups are those who are disadvantage and under-represented in entrepreneurship
and self-employment, including youth, women, seniors, ethnic minorities and
immigrants, disabled people and many other groups. By improving employment
outcomes for people with disability will provide significant benefits to workplaces, the economy, the community and
individuals themselves. Employment can provide people with disability with increased income, and with this, higher living standards and financial

         Moreover it can contribute to a sense of identity and
self-worth and have positive health
impacts for some people with disability. Inclusive entrepreneurship
outcomes for people with disability can also reduce demand on welfare systems.


1-3 Social economy

         Social economy is one of many ways to
define an economic activity that combines social and economic goals. It is also
referred to social economy or social entrepreneurship.

         The concept of social economy is very
broad and affects many spheres of social life. However, trying to find a common
denominator, we can say that the key principle of this idea is the primacy of
action for the people (members and dependents) over the maximization of profit.
This means that the social economy entities important – next to the economic –
has a social mission. Thus, the social economy, meeting the needs of its
members or dependents, often perform tasks, which neither the state nor the
other operators do not comply sufficiently effective.

         Social economy, based on the values of
solidarity, participation and self-government, plays a key role in local social
development. It allows the use of human resources in a complementary way to the
private and public sectors, prevents social exclusion and alleviates social
tensions. In broad terms: the social economy supports the process of building
civil society.

         Social economy also corresponds to the
priorities of the European Union: social cohesion, full employment and the
fight against poverty, participatory democracy, better governance and
sustainable development.


1-4 Work based learning and its function

         Learning at work is an important aspect
of adult learning. Employees have the opportunity to update their knowledge,
skills and competences, acquire new skills and increase their employability.
Workplace learning benefits both employees and employers as it contributes to
increased competitiveness and productivity.

         Learning in the workplace is a
necessity today, almost a duty. As emphasized by Dr Anna Lubra?ska from the
University of Lodz, “… the condition for optimal functioning (at work
and in everyday life) has been constant learning, cognitive engagement, and improvement.
Learning enables individuals to maintain and strengthen their professionalism,
self-steering, a greater awareness of themselves, their rights, privileges and
their role in the environment, the possibility of impact on the environment.
Continuing lifelong learning is simply a necessity in today’s reality, while
being a contemporary realization of the thought that (…) a person learns all
his life “. Adult education through institutional education, training and
self-teaching activity forms, perfect professional qualifications and
competence of employees present and future. Professional vocational education
currently carries out several functions. These are as follows:

Adaptive function –
related to the adaptation of the employee to new jobs emerging in connection
with technical and technological progress.

function – professional training should be undertaken by all those who need to
supplement knowledge because of a change in position within the organization.

Renovation function
– that is to educate people who come back to work after a long break, need to
update their knowledge and skills.

function – resulting from the fact that the modern world requires mobility and
flexibility from the people, forcing the reconstruction of subjective
possibilities and habits.

Creation function –
the increasing popularity of work organization based on the functioning of the
teams results in an increased need to improve creative thinking,


Based on; Adult education in
the aspect of professional development and realities of the contemporary labor
market, Anna Lubra?ska – University of Lodz.


Recomendations for an Inclusive Entrepreneurship

is a way of life and a collection of qualities through which we achieve our
goals, often associated with the achievement of measurable profit. Can
entrepreneurship be learned? Of course, it can be, but it is not easy and
requires the candidate’s consequences, sacrifices and systemic support on many

How to do it? Here are some key recommendations:

Promotion of
entrepreneurship culture among people with disabilities and the fight against

Multi-level tools
and support services in the area of business financing

Training, curricula
tailored to the needs of this social group and labor market needs

Promotion of role
models, disabled people who have been successful in business

Different forms of
individual support for the disabled, such as training vouchers, assistant
services and work trainers, individual funding for job placement and transport
to the workplace should be increased. On the larger scale, there should be
available work coaches and recruited mentors from the companies.

training or early learning in the workplace and more are some of the tools
needed to help  people transform their
ideas into action, even though entrepreneurship is about learning by doing.


1-6 Role of the technology

individual’s decision for the path of self-employment is influenced by different factors. One factor is simply put the
calculation of opportunity costs (Arum and Müller 2004). For example, if the
benefits of  being  unemployed 
or  being  employed 
are  higher  than 
benefits  of  self-employment,  a 
decision  towards  self-employment  will 
probably  not  be 
made.  Another factor is the
degree of independence which positively correlates with the likelihood of
self-employment (Shane, A. S. 2003). But the most important factor for becoming
self-employed might be self-motivation,
as it is the driver which results from factors like opportunity costs or independence
(Wickham 2006).

         Disabled   people  
are   often disadvantaged to
handle a complex situation like self-employment. The task is much more
difficult for disabled  people  and 
in  some  cases 
even  impossible  compared 
to  people  without 
disabilities.  Due to their
disability they lack specific capabilities e.g. visual or mobile capabilities
which aggravate self-employment. In many cases disabled people don’t possess
the required skills for self-employment 
as  their  education 
is  substandard  (National 
organisation  on  disability 

         This  handicap 
can  easily  decline 
self-motivation  and  further 
lead  to damaged  self-esteem. Under these conditions self-employment
experience is much more unlikely. To increase the self-employment of disabled
people it is  therefore necessary  to 
preserve  self-motivation  and 
self-esteem  by  diminishing 
disadvantages  for  people with disabilities.

            Technology is an
important factor for disabled people to achieve and maintain self-motivation and self-esteem and to
participate in social environment (Sans-Bobi, M.A. et al. 2012).

            Assistive technologies
(AT), accessible websites and accessible applications enable
disabled people to be part of the society (Seelman, K. D. 2008). For example, artificial limbs, retina
implants or screen readers, which enhance inclusion and self-esteem, establish
important conditions for disabled people to start a business.

technology is a crucial factor for starting a business today. Using state-of-the-art technologies like computer
systems, including software and hardware, or manufacturing processes is
essential to compete in today’s global landscape.

         Yet people
with disabilities like physical or cognitive impairments often are limited regarding
these capabilities, even if they have a high education. In most cases this is
due to inappropriate technologies that do not meet the requirements of people with

the efficient utilization of technology is often not possible for disabled
people. This means people with disabilities have disadvantages to obtain
independent individuality (individual person perspective) as well as necessary
information for self-employment (information society perspective) and to
vanquish barriers to organise their business in a competitive manner (business
organisational perspective).To strengthen the self-employment of disabled people
it is therefore indispensable to provide AT to them.

         It’s important to figure
out what your strengths and weakness are. If you enjoy taking risks and are
self-motivated, disciplined and resilient, becoming an entrepreneur might be a
great choice. On the flip side, if you are the kind of person who values
structure and stability, and you shy away from risk, you might prefer working
as an employee.

         As you look to the future,
keep an open mind about the path your career may take. You could find
fulfilling work as an employee at an existing company or you could start your
own business and blaze your own trail. So many options are open to you! It’s OK
to be a little unsure and excited all at the same time.

         In order
to enhance the start-up rate within the European Union and to offer adequate
conditions for conducting business projects, four key issues have been
identified as the four steps out of social exclusion.

Generate an
entrepreneurial culture within a corresponding framework.

Availability of
target group specific professional start-up support and trainings.

support during the consolidation and growth period of young businesses.

Access to adequate