Privacy is something that every single person expects and should be entitled to, it allows a person to do what they like freely without the fear of someone observing them. Even though people are entitled to privacy this expectation is not always met. Technology and social media have made an immense impact on society, they essentially make a person’s life easier and more efficient. Information is available at a person’s finger tips and communication is just a few mouse clicks away. Although, the convenience and speed of sharing information can come at a cost. When people reveal themselves and share things with the use of technology, they are potentially giving up some of their privacy without being aware of it. Once something is posted online there is no way of taking it down as it spreads among many devices and servers. In George Orwell’s 1984 readers are shown what it is like to live in a society where privacy is constantly invaded because of the use of technology. The corrupt society in 1984 is lead by a man who goes by the name Big Brother, he is part of an upper power that leads and rules over the people of Oceania. The use of technology enables this upper power to watch over all the people to ensure that things such as a rebellion are not being discussed including any other topics that may go against what the party believes in. Invasion of one’s privacy has increased the past few years because of the development of electrical devices. “Privacy under attack : the NSA files revealed new threats to democracy” by Eben Moglen, states that internet hackers prowl using technology and social media to tap into their victim’s devices without them knowing. Since victims of hacking do not realize that they are being surveillanced by a complete stranger it is difficult if not impossible to find and punish these people. The fact that it is so hard to isolate and identify these individuals that are invading people’s lives and homes through their devices, has lead to an increase in the number of occurrences of hackers. Good hackers rarely leave a trail and require people with high technical skills and security clearance to locate the hacker. Hackers don’t follow the rules of society or law but the people trying to find the hackers are bound by the laws of society. The use of technology is seen almost everywhere, it is the reason for many privacy issues. Both Orwell and Moglen show how privacy issues from technology can eventually develop and then lead to spying, physical violence and loss of freedom. Spying is the act of observing and watching someone without them knowing for the purpose of collecting and documenting information. It is also a huge problem that people in 1984 and in today’s society face when they have privacy issues because of technology. In 1984 the people of Oceania are constantly being observed by Big Brother and the party. The population of Oceania is fairly large. The size of the group being observed made it difficult for the party to conduct surveillance on each and every single person. The telescreens are an invention of the party. They are devices that detect intentions of rebellion within the people of Oceania. These devices are put into all the households and workplaces of every citizen in Oceania. Any crime or thoughts of crimes is detected by these pieces of technology and the punishments that people face in 1984 are truly cruel. An example of fear of punishment would be when the main character Winston turned his back against the telescreen so that he could write in the diary without being watched by the party. In the book it says “By sitting in the alcove, and keeping well back, Winston was able to remain outside the range of the telescreen, so far as sight went”(Orwell 7). Winston knows that if the party were to catch him committing this act of concealing his thoughts he will be taken to the ministry of love to be punished in unimaginable ways. Even in today’s society people have to worry about being spied on especially because of the Edward Snowden case. Society today has seen an increase in use of technology which has lead to an increase in the need for security for tech devices. The increase of sales of certain technology like phones are a result of society becoming a place where a person could not function without the use of at least one piece of technology. As technology develops so does the risk of being hacked and survelliced by a complete stranger. Higher security also brings forth many strong and intelligent hackers who are willing to hack into any system to get what they want such as money or inappropriate content. It all depends on what the hacker wants to do, some people would never guess that even the government taps into people’s devices to surveillance them. Luckily there was one man who found out that this was happening and exposed the government for doing this. Edward Snowden was a former contractor for the CIA who exposed the United States government for surveilling American citizens through phones and internet services. There are many reasons to why the government would spy on their citizens, they justified their actions by stating “concern for terrorism against the country” (Moglen). There have been a number of terrorist attacks against the United States of America, the most noticeable attack being 9/11 where many American lives were lost. After 9/11 the security throughout the United States increased as the government did not want such an attack to happen again. The government of the United States is always thinking of ways they can improve their country, one being the abolishment of things such as terrorism. By tapping into devices such as phones the government can track what a person is doing at all times and if there were any suspicious messages or transaction the government would observe that person more. Even though this may seem like a good thing it is actually a violation of every person’s privacy. People should not have to live with the fear of being watched 24 hours a day. Physical crimes are considered any type of physical action that may hurt or even kill another living being. Some physical crimes are induced because of the invasion of another person’s privacy. In the book 1984, there are physical crimes that are so cruel they go against humanity. The people who suffer these physical punishments are the people who got caught acting in some way against the upper party. In 1984 the upper party uses technology to watch every person’s action, if anything looks suspicious the party will send out people to retrieve one or many persons to be brought to the ministry of love where the physical crimes against humanity are done. Winston hates the party and believes that everything that they do is wrong. He also believes that someone else besides the party and Big Brother should be in power, but in order for this to happen he must come up with a way to rebell and throw the party out of power. He consults with people who he believes he can trust, specifically one person by the name of Julia. Winston and Julia talk in areas where they believe they can talk in private without being watched, but in reality everywhere they go is being surveillanced either by undercover party members, junior spies or pieces of technology that record and tape people. Even their own houses are watched by the party which is a huge privacy issue because a person should feel relaxed and safe when they are home, instead they feel stressed and scared because if they do anything the party does not like they will receive harsh and cruel punishments. This is exactly what happened to Winston and Julia, since both of them wanted to rebel against the upper party and were caught doing so. The harsh physical crimes that the people of Oceania face are shown when Winston is first brought to the ministry of love and beaten by many men until he succumbed. In the book it says:Sometimes it was fists, sometimes it was truncheons, sometimes it was steel rods, and sometimes it was boots. There were times when he rolled about the floor, as shameless as an animal, writhing his body this way and that in an endless, hopeless effort to dodge the kicks, and simply inviting more and yet more kicks, in his ribs, in his belly, on his elbows, on his shins, in his groin, in his testicles, on the bone at the base of his spine. (Orwell 252) Winston is being physically harassed because of the actions he made, he thought that he was safe because he was always talking and acting in private so that he may never be caught. He always talked in areas where there were no other people that could listen in, but he forgot to check for things like hidden microphones and cameras that the party invests in to catch people like Winston. Even though the physical crimes in the book were very cruel and graphic, they are very similar to the violence that some victims face today. An experienced hacker is able to hack into any device of their choosing and get any information that they want. Many people who have suffered from privacy issues also suffer from physical violence, this is because if the hacker is able to retrieve personal information like a house address they can leak it to one or more other people who find pleasure in the pain and suffering of other people. When this happens the victims are thrown into horrible situations where they have to act fast because their life and safety is on the line. Eben states that “They are doing this because they have been presented with a mission by an extraordinarily imprudent US administration, which – having failed to prevent a very serious attack on civilians at home”(Moglen). People are suffering attacks in their own homes because of hacking. The government does not do anything about this because they will then be seen as hypocrites as they committed the exact act of hacking by spying on people through their own devices. When a person has privacy issues it sometimes makes the person feel scared and insecure to do the things that they would usually do, when this happens the person is essentially losing their freedom. The only freedom that the citizens in 1984 get is when they are sleeping because a person does not do anything when they sleep, but even when sleeping a person can talk in their sleep and reveal things about themselves that they do not want other people knowing about. The worst thing is that everything that a person says can be recorded by the telescreen put into their home or by the hidden microphones that the party place around Oceania.The people of Oceania walk around like zombies listening to commands made my Big Brother and the party. The only people in the book that have freedom are the proles as the party sees them as a lower life form and feel like putting energy towards them would just be a waste. The freedom felt by the people of Oceania can be expressed by the quote “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU”(Orwell 4). The people of Oceania live in constant fear because they are always being watched and surveillanced by the upper party either with technology or undercover party members. The citizens are not able to do or say what they want without being under surveillance. According to “Privacy under attack : the NSA files revealed new threats to democracy” lots of people become victims to hackers who are able to do many things, including hacking into the cameras of any device to watch and record every action and comment that a person makes. People in today’s society who have suffered from the surveillance of a hacker are the same as the citizens of 1984 as they are afraid to do the things that they would normally do. Lots of people’s freedom is taken away from them because of technology, people are afraid of criminals hacking into phone or computer cameras to watch their every movie. This act is not only unusual but also terrifying because it means that the only area a person can be safe from constant surveillance is in an area with no technology at all,which is very unlikely due to current societal norms. Eben expresses the freedom in society by saying “In a democracy, that task is given by the people to the leaders they elect. These leaders fell – and we fell with them – because they refused to adhere to the morality of freedom”. Every country wants to be lead by a strong and honest leader, Eben is stating that society is corrupting because the people of America voted the wrong people to power. The government lied to the people and ignored freedom to act by committing the act of watching fellow Americans through their own devices. If privacy issues are not attended to it can eventually lead to far worse things such as spying, physical crimes and loss of freedom. As seen in both pieces of literature, people who experience consistent privacy issues can also suffer from physical and emotional pain. It all depends on the situation that the victim is in. In 1984 the upper party feels that the best way for them to stay in power is to constantly watch every person, meaning that each citizen in Oceania is essentially a victim of privacy issues. People in the book gain stress and anxiety if they rebel against the party in any way they can suffer many severe punishments for it. In the articles case every victim of privacy invasion was a person who owns a electrical device, this is because there are people with advanced knowledge of technology and are able to tap into any device of their choosing. In society it is very hard to function without at least one piece of technology which makes it near impossible to avoid privacy issues. Both authors show readers how technology can negatively impact anyone who comes into contact with it. There are many ways to avoid problems involving privacy and technology, one way would be to enforce harsher punishments against those who choose to invade one’s personal life. The best way to avoid privacy issues is to put down the electrical devices and step outside to spend time with friends or family.