Production of Bodiless using Transmogrification BY Gluttony 3 Bodiless production yields varied from 81. 7 to 88. 0 (wet%), the lowest yields being the ones obtained using waste frying oil and lard alone as raw materials. The obtained products fulfilled most of the determined quality specifications according to European bodiless quality standard EN 14214. Minimum purity (96. 5 wet%) was closely obtained when waste frying oil was used alone and when 0. % of lard was incorporated in the raw material (96. 3 wet%); however, it ranged from 93. 9 to 96. 3 (wet %) being always close to the limit. From the evaluation of the influence of mixture composition in bodiless quality, it was possible to establish a model to be used for predicting some parameters of bodiless resulting from mixtures of waste frying oil with lard when different lard contents are used.
DIESEL consists of a mixture of fatty acid alkyl esters, that can be used as an alternative fuel in compression-ignition engines; it is obtained from renewable resources, such as vegetable oils and animal fats, which makes it biodegradable and non-toxic Bodiless might be produced by transmogrification, which is a three-step reversible action that converts the initial triglyceride into a mixture of alkyl esters and glycerol, in the presence of a catalyst. Currently, bodiless production is mainly made using virgin vegetable oils and the major obstacle for bodiless production is the high price of such raw materials.
Additionally, the use of food oils for bodiless production is controversial; reason why studying alternatives J. M. Dais is with ELOPE, at the Department of Chemical Engineering (PEEP), Aura D. Roberto Friars s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal (phone: 00351- 225-081-976; fax: 00351-225-081-449; e-mail: nana. [email protected] Up. Apt). C. A. Frazer is with ELOPE, at the Department of Chemical Engineering (PEEP), Aura D. Roberto Friars s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal (e-mail: [email protected] Up. Apt). M. F.
Alameda is with ELOPE, at the Department of Metallurgical and Material [email protected] Up. Apt). Is of major importance. Few studies can be encountered regarding the conversion of animal fat. Also, studies regarding the mixture of raw materials for bodiless production are currently limited. In a study by Engagement et al. (2007)  the use of castor oil, which had a viscosity of 225. 8 mm -1 at detonated oil. In a study by Leaves et al. (2006)  the use of three component mixtures also allowed the reduction of emission and harmful components of the fuel.
The use of wastes as raw materials for bodiless production has three major advantages: I) do not compete with the food market; it) recycles waste; and iii) reduces production costs . The great amounts of waste animal fat, produced at several slaughter houses and other meat processing units, might be an attractive and cheap raw material. Other waste materials that can be used for bodiless production are the asset frying oils Due to the scarce availability of these low cost materials, their use at an industrial scale is limited; however, their mixture with other raw materials might be an attractive alternative.
In order to improve the knowledge on this subject, the objective of the present work was: (I) to study bodiless production using waste frying oil mixed with pork lard and (ii) to understand how mixture composition influences bodiless quality. II. MATERIALS AND METHODS The waste frying oil was obtained from a voluntary collection system implemented at the Faculty of Engineering ND consisted of waste frying oil from different domestic sources. The pork lard was from the brand “Dildo Scares”, and was purchased at the market. The reagents used during bodiless production procedures were: methanol 99. % (analytical grade, Fischer Scientific), sodium hydroxide powder 97% (reagent grade, Aldrich) and anhydrous sodium sulfate 99% (analytical grade, Panacea). Bodiless production was performed in three steps, pre-treatment of raw material, synthesis and purification. A. Pre-treatment of Raw Material Waste cooking oil was filtered under vacuum, after dehydrated using anhydrous sodium sulfate (left over night) and finally again filtered under vacuum. The pork lard was first heated at 100 co to eliminate residual water and after cooled to near the reaction temperature (60 co).
Using Mixtures of Waste Frying Oil and Pork Lard to produce Bodiless Joana M. Dais, Conceit#o A. Frazer, and Manuel F. Alameda B. Raw materials Characterization Different properties of the starting raw materials were according to EN 14103 (2003) and NP EN ISO 5508 (1996)); it) acid value, by volumetric titration according to the standard NP EN ISO 660 (2002); ii) iodine value, by volumetric titration using Will reagent, according to the standard ISO 3961 (1996); and ‘v) water content, using kilometric Karl Fischer titration.
C. Bodiless Synthesis Synthesis of bodiless was made by transmogrification. The mixtures of waste frying oil and lard were prepared considering the increase in the fat fraction of the mixture, varying from in 0. 2 intervals. The fat was weighted and added to the reactor, which already contained the necessary amount of oil. A defined amount of methanol (6:1 molar ratio to oil) pre-mixed with Noah (0. (wet %) was added to the reactor, which already had 100 g of the raw material mixture, preheated at the reaction temperature.
At this point, the reaction started; the reactor consisted off 1 L flatboat flask immersed in a temperature controlling bath, equipped with a water-cooled condenser and a magnetic stirrer. Reaction occurred for 60 min under vigorous stirring; at the end of the reaction, products were left to settle for 1 hour to allow the separation of the two phases: bodiless and glycerol. D. Bodiless Purification Both phases were separated and excess methanol was covered from each phase, using a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. Bodiless was then filtered (S, grade 589/1), and washed, first with 50% (WV) of an acid solution (0. % HCI) and after repeatedly with 50% (WV) of distilled water until the pH of the washing water was the same as the distilled water. The filtering stage was adopted due to the fact that it significantly improved the washing stage, reducing emulsion formation. Regarding bodiless dehydration, different procedures were adopted to evaluate which would be the best one. Such procedures were based on the use of an anhydrous salt and evaporation at reduced pressure under different conditions. E. Bodiless Characterization The bodiless characterization was made according to the European bodiless standard EN 14214 (2003).