PWS 150 Exam 1

Environment
the combination of all things and factors external to the individual or population of organisms
Ecology
the study of any and all aspects of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment
Ecosystem
a grouping of plants animals and other organisms interacting with each other and with their environment
Biosphere
overall ecosystem on earth
Trophic Level
feeding level with respect to the primary source of energy.
Wetland
areas that are constantly wet and are flooded at more or less regular intervals
1st Trophic Level
green plants
2nd Trophic Level
primary consumers
3rd Trophic Level
secondary consumers
Conservation
wise and sustainable use
Preservation
no use and no impacts
Exploitation
complete utilization, destruction, or mining of resources
Symbiotic w/ example
intimate living together or association of two kinds of organisms

mycorrhizae

Aerobic
with oxygen
Anaerobic
lacking oxygen
Heterotrophic w/ examples
organism that consumes organic matter as a source of energy

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cow/horse/bee

Autotrophic w/ examples
organism that produces organic matter as a source of energy

grass/flowers/etc

Photosynthesis
light energy is used to produce glucose from CO2 and H20
Chorophyll
green pigment in plants responsible for absorbing light
Chemosynthesis
process where some microorganisms utilize the chemical energy contained in reduced inorganic compounds as a source of energy
Primary Producer
photosynthesis organisms

create their own food

Consumer
Consume other organisms for energy
Fungal Hyphae or Mycelium
threadlike feeding filaments of fungi
Stewardship
attitude of active care and concern for natural lands.
Eminent Domain
action of the state to seize private property or not allow use for monetary compensation
Mychorrizae
mycelia of fungi that grown symbiotically with the roots of the plants and provide additional nutrient uptake
Multiple use of federal lands
Wilderness areas, national parks, grazing, mining, logging, recreation, wildlife
Biodiversity
variety of organisms and their interactions
Rain Shadow
low rainfall regions that exists on the downwind side of a mountain range.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
Federal mandate that protects species and their habitats that are in danger of extinction
Groundwater
water that has accumulated in the ground, completely filling and saturating all pores and spaces in rock or soil
Capillary Water
water that clings in small pores, cracks and spaces against the pull of gravity
Infiltration
process in which water soaks into soul as opposed to running off the surface of the soil
Percolation
process of water seeping downward through cracks and pores in soil or rock
Leaching
process in which material in or on the soil gradually dissolve and are carried by water seeping through the soil
Prokaryotic Cells
cells with no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic Cells
cells with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

plant/animal cells

1st law of Thermodynamics
energy can be changed from one form or another, but cannot be created nor destroyed
2nd law of Thermodynamics
in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state

entropy

Geometric vs. Arithmetic increases (who wrote about these)
geometric= constant growth
arithmetic=rate of change is increasing
6CO2 + 6H2O + light -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
photosynthesis
N2 -> Organic N
fixation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2+ 6H2O + energy
cell respiration
NH4OH -> NH3 (gas) + H2O
volitization
Organic N -> NH4+
mineralization
NH4+ -> NO2- -> NO3-
nitrification
NO3- -> Organic N
immobilization
NO3- -> NO2- -> N2O -> N2
denitrification
Nitrate moving downward with percolating water.
leaching
Soluble phosphate -> insoluble (fixed) phosphate
phosphorous cycle
Epilimnion
top-most layer in a thermally stratified lake
Thermocline
transition layer between deep and surface water
Hypolimnion
dense, bottom layer of water in a thermally-stratified lake